The Zimbabwe (formerly known as Southern Rhodesia before its independence) is a Pays, located in the South of the Africa. Without access to the sea, the country is surrounded by the South Africa, the Botswana in the West, the Zambia in North and the Mozambique in the East.
- Before 500: the Khoïsan S are the most former known inhabitants of the country.
- Towards 500: arrival of the Bantous Gokomere, ancestors of the Shonas.
- E-13th century: construction of the monument of stone of “Large Zimbabwe” by tribes shonas.
- 1420 : foundation of the empire of Monomotapas by the king Mwene Mutapa. The civilization of the Grand Zimbabwe declines irremediably.
- 1480 : foundation of the kingdom shona of the Torwa, direct successor of “Large Zimbabwe. ”
- Beginning 16th century: arrived of the Portuguese which invest the plate rhodésien by the valley of the Zambezi.
- 1690 : the Portuguese are finally expelled by the troops of Monomatapa. But the field of the old empire is henceforth limited to the valley of the Zambezi.
- 1684 : collapse of the Torwa dynasty, reversed by the clan Changamire which founds the empire Rozwi.
- 1840 : foundation of a military state Ndébélé directed by Mzilikazi of the Zulu clan Xumalo on the debris of the Rozwi empire.
- 1852 : recognition of the ndébélé Kingdom of Mzilikazi by the Republic of South Africa of Transvaal.
- 1854 : the explorer David Livingstone arrives at the Chutes Victoria.
- 1870 - 1880: exploration of the territories shonas and ndébélés by Europeans of which Frederick Selous and Thomas Baines.
- 1888 : signature of the Rudd concession by the king Lobengula, misused by a bad translation. It thus yields to BSAC of Cecil Rhodos the whole of the grounds located between the rivers Zambezi and Limpopo.
- 1895 : administration by BSAC of the territory baptized Rhodesia in the honor of Cecil Rhodos. Administrative division enters the territories of the North of the Zambezi baptized Rhodesia of North and those to the South baptized Southern Rhodesia.
- 1923 : the administration of BSAC ends. Failure of integration to the South Africa of Southern Rhodesia which takes the autonomous statute of colony then whereas London preserves the seizure on the administration of Rhodesia of North and the Nyasaland.
- 1953 - 1964: Federation of Rhodesia and Nyassaland gathering Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia of North and Nyasaland.
- 1964 : independences of Rhodesia of North renamed Zambia and Nyassaland renamed Malawi.
- 1965 : unilateral declaration of independence of ex-Rhodesia of the South by the white government of Ian Smith.
- 1970 : proclamation of the Republic of Rhodesia (not recognized).
- 1978 : internal agreements between government rhodésien and black nationalist movements moderated for the installation of a new assembly and a multiracial government.
- 1979 : transitory creation of the State of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia. Rehabilitation with the the United Kingdom. Agreements of Lancaster House preparing the independence of Zimbabwe and a redistribution of the grounds after 10 years.
- 1980 : fifteen years after the UDI of Ian Smith, the British grant independence to Southern Rhodesia which takes the name of Zimbabwe, member of the the Commonwealth. The former chief of Guérilla Robert Mugabe is the new Prime Minister.
- 1980 - 1988: “Civil war” enters 2 black nationalist movements ZANU (shonas) and ZAPU (matabélés and ndébélés).
- 1987 : modification of the constitution. Robert Mugabe becomes the president of Zimbabwe at December 31st.
- Years 1990: stressing of the authoritarianism of the mode.
- 2000 : the first expropriations of farm belonging to white. Mugabe is repudiated at the time of a referendum on a constitutional reform.
- 2002 : Robert Mugabe gains the presidential elections at the time of a poll whose honesty is disputed.
- 2003 : agrarian and political serious attack following expropriation by Mugabe of the white farmers. The State installs on the requisitioned grounds of the close relations of the mode, officially war veterans of the war of independence. Those do not have however knowledge, nor the hardware requirement to cultivate their pieces and much grounds remain in waste lands. Political crisis when the movements of opposition as the MDC are repressed and the faked elections. Following an intensive campaign of the movements of the human rights, British and opposition, the the Commonwealth imposes retaliatory measures against the principal leaders of Zimbabwe. Within the Commonwealth, Mugabe however receives the support of several African countries and denounces measures taken at the instigation of the “white” countries (Canada, Great Britain, Australia). The local opposition of the MDC is repressed.
- 2004 : consequence of the land reform, the old attic with Blé of Africa cannot provide any more for its needs and 70 % of the population is found without employment. Zimbabwe withdraws itself from the Commonwealth.
- 2005 : the party of Robert Mugabe, ZANU, gains the legislative elections over bottom of violence and electoral frauds vis-a-vis a divided and weakened MDC. Between 120.000 and 1,5 million inhabitants of the Shantytown S of Harare, bastions of the opposition, is expelled at the end of spring at the time of the destruction of their dwellings on order of the government. Adoption of a constitutional reform restricting the property rights and allowing the government to deprive no matter whom of passport for reasons “of national interest. ” In order to gain the support of the population Mugabe persecutes the minority ndébélés, number of them flee in South Africa. The landowners see themselves prohibiting to make call of their expropriation. Creation of a Senate of 66 members, in fact a simple room of recording to the service of President Mugabe. Inflation exceeds the 1 000 % in 2006. The exodus of the population towards the adjoining countries accelerates.
See also: Political of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe is a République Parlement surface. The right to vote is granted to all the citizens of more than 18 years.
The President is at the same time the Head of the State and the chief of the government.
See also: Provinces of Zimbabwe
The country is divided into 8 provinces: Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Eastern Mashonaland, Western Mashonaland, Masvingo, Matabeleland of North, Matabeleland of the South, the Midlands. Zimbabwe counts also two cities which have the statute of province: Bulawayo and Harare.
See also: Geography of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe is a country of high plateau without access to the sea. The Lake Kariba and the river Zambezi delimit the major part of the border with Zambia (in the North-West). The natural landscapes are the dry or raised Savane.
The country covers a surface of 390 580 km ². Among the natural resources are: the coal, the chromium, the Asbestos, the Gold, the Nickel, the Copper, ores of Iron, the Vanadium, the Lithium, the tin, and metals of the group of the Platinum.
Zimbabwe suffers from Déforestation, erosion of the grounds, and regularly from Sécheresse. The black Rhinocéros is in danger of extinction because of the Braconnage.
See also: Economy of Zimbabwe
The implication of the country in the war in Democratic republic of Congo weighed heavy on the economy of the country, but in exchange Mugabe and the senior officials Zimbabwean made fortune thanks to the ores of Congo (Cobalt, Diamant, etc).
The sector of agriculture suffered from a badly committed distribution of the grounds in 1999 and 2000. In 1996,4 500 white farmers still had on this date approximately 30 % of the cultivable grounds of the country (against 70 % in 1980) cultivating Corn, Groundnut S and Tobacco and whose sales turnover represented more 50 % of GDP. Called the attic with corn of Africa, the country took part as a supplier of food products in the World food program (WFP). Since, half of these grounds were parcelled out or redistributed in spite of the good sense to friends of the mode or black farmers without the technical training to manage exploitations. Many white then emigrated towards Australia, Zambia, South Africa or England. Since, Zimbabwe became customer of WFP.
For its part, president Mugabe sees in the reason of this economic crisis the sanctions imposed on his mode by the the United States and the European Union because of the attacks to the human rights. The tourist sector is also in crisis and the Western tourists avoid the country, anxious because of the feelings anti-white. The government however hopes to attract tourists Chinese but those should with difficulty fill the vacuum left by Western tourists holders of currencies.
The July 31st 2006, the government announces the revaluation of 1 000 % of its currency. New cuts are then put in circulation and during three weeks, both will have course. This revaluation should however of nothing stop the economic serious attack, where the rate of Chômage is of approximately 70 %. The raison d'être of this operation is most probably purely cosmetic, while making believe that the prices dropped. Thus in a televised publicity of the government, one sees an housewife announcing that a Pain cost from now on nothing any more but 200 dollars whereas before it cost 200 000.
Zimbabwe beat a new record of inflation in January 2007 with 1 593 % in annual rhythm, a few days after the advertisement of the dismissal of the Minister for Finance, Herbert Murerwa, replaced by Samuel Mumbengegwi. Inflation for the month of March 2007 would be of 2 200 %.
In August 2007, 2 liters of oil of kitchen cost 400 000 Zimbabwean dollars, approximately 2,8 US$ or 2 €. The American currency is exchanged officially against 252 $ZWD but is worth close to 200 000 $ZWD at the black-market (September 2007).
See also: Demography of Zimbabwe
The country counts approximately 11 million inhabitants (2000). Devastated by the AIDS, the epidemic cause a drop in the life expectancy and became a true threat for the survival of the Zimbabwean state.
See also: Culture of Zimbabwe
Close to the town of Masvingo, in the South of the country, the ruins of the Grand Zimbabwe are.
Monitoring of the communications
According to an opinion published on August 3rd, 2007 (lack references), the President of Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe signed a law authorizing the agents of the safety of the State to supervise the phone lines of which mobile connections, postal mail and Internet.
The authorities say that the new law aims to protect the national security and to prevent the crime, but associations of protection of the Human rights fear that aims censuring freedom of expression and at repressing those which want to express their difference in opinion.
The law gives to the police force and the departments of the national security, the information and the defense of important financial means to intercept telecommunications and envisages the creation of a station control room.
The post office, the companies of telecommunications and the suppliers of access to Internet are requested to make sure that their " systems is technically able to support legal interceptions constantly ".
The critics judged that the law is a stratagem of the government to enable him to identify the opponents, at one time when the policy of Mugabe undergoes an increasing criticism on behalf of the Western governments owing to the fact that the country is at the edge of absolute collapse.
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