Zhang Fei (167? - 221) (traditional: zh-Hant 張飛; simplified: Zh-Hans 张飞, Pinyin: Zhāng Fēi), or Tchang Fei (EFEO), had for social nickname Yide (zh-Hant 益德, Yìdé) and was a Chinese general of the end of the dynasty of the Han and beginning of the period of the Three Kingdoms.
It was used under the orders as Liu EIB, the founder of the dynasty Shu. According to the legend, it belonged to the “Five generals tigers” of the army of Shu, although one is not sure that it actually carried this title, and was considered by its adversaries to have with the combat the force of ten thousand men. Its character was immortalisé in the novel Histoire of the Three Kingdoms where it east depicts there like an almost invincible warrior, but too leaning on alcohol and head-burned. He was killed, betrayed by his own subordinates who delivered his head to Sun Quan in 221.
He is known in Japan under the name of Chōhi Ekitoku and in Korea under that of Jangbi Igdeog .
BiographyThe official biography of Zhang Fei is in the Sanguo Zhi, chapter 36 (delivers of Shu, volume 6).
Zhang Fei is probably born in 167, in the neighborhoods of Zhoujun. It is useful in its youth Liu EIB in company of Guan Yu. As this last has a few years more than him, Zhang Fei treats it with the respect due to an older brother.
Liu EIB follows CAD CAD in its fight against Lu Drunk (198), and CAD CAD offers to Zhang Fei the station of zhong Lang jian (zh-Hans 中郎将) “general of noble”. In 199, Liu EIB is turned over against CAD CAD and will join Yuan Shao, then Liu Biao until the death of this last in 208. CAD CAD benefits from it to take Jingzhou, kind Liu EIB to be fled in Jiangnan. The troops of CAD CAD continue it during one day and a night and miss catching up with it in Changban. By hearing the troops of CAD CAD arrive, Liu EIB gives up his wife and her children and orders in Zhang Fei to keep the backs with twenty riders. Zhang Fei destroys the bridge and points its lance on the prosecutors while howling: “I am Zhang Yide! How that which wants to face me in a duel with dead advances! ”. Nobody dared to take up the challenge and Liu EIB could flee. It attacks then Jiangnan and names Zhang Fei governor of Yidu and the load of zhanglu jiangju (zh-Hans 征虏将军) offers to him “general which subjects the prisoners”. It receives moreover the seal of marquis de Xinting and was sent to Nanjun.
Liu EIB goes on Yizhou and besieges Liu Zhang. Zhang Fei, accompanied by Zhuge Liang pacifies various prefectures of the area. They conquer Jiangzhou and capture Yan Yan, a general who directed Bajun, under the orders of Liu Zhang. Zhang Fei, furious of resistance that this last had opposed to him, would have howled to him: “You saw our large army, and you nevertheless preferred to fight instead of you to return? ”. Yan Yan answers him: “You did not have anything to make on my province! I prefer that this one contains decapitated generals that generals who went! ”. Zhang Fei orders with its soldiers to decapitate Yan Yan, but this last, without tressaillir, makes him the following remark: “I Decapitates if that sings you! Why irritate you like that? ”. Moved by the demonstration by courage by Yan Yan, Zhang Fei demolishes its bonds to him and treats it as a guest of honor. When Liu EIB arrives at Bajun, Yan Yan is held the heart while sighing: “Here exactly what one calls: to only sit down on the hill and to slacken a tiger to protect itself! ”.
Zhang Fei is victorious in all the battles which follow and it finds Liu EIB in Changdu. Yizhou is pacified soon and Zhuge Liang, Fa Zheng, Zhang Fei and Guan Yu receive each one a reward of 500 jin (books) of gold: 1000 of money: 5000 coins and: 1000 silk rollers. The remainder of the plundered richnesses is distributed to the troops and Zhang Fei receives the title of governor of Baxi.
After CAD CAD had demolishes Zhang Lu, it leaves Xiahou Yuan and Zhang He to defend the valley of Han behind. Zhang He directs several armies against Baxi and walk on Dangqu, Mengtou, Dangshi and combat Zhang Fei during fifty days. This last carries out: 10000 soldiers of elite by a nonusual road to prepare a ambush on the sinuous roads of mountain, ambush which inflicts a severe defeat with Zhang He, forcing it to beat a retreat.
Liu EIB proclaims then king de Hanzhong and promotes Zhang Fei with the row of you jiangjun (zh-Hans 右将军) “general of the right-hand side”. In 221 (1 year of Zhangwu ), it receives the load of che IQ jianjun (zh-Hans 车骑将军) “General of the cavalry and the carriages”, as well as the load of marquis de Xixiang.
The sacring pronounced by Liu EIB was the following:
- “ Us (Liu EIB), heir to the Son of the Sky (Liu EIB belonged to the imperial family) and holder of the responsibility of eliminate the disorders and to bring back peace, could not yet conclude this ideal. Still now of the rebels bring chaos and the people must cross severely testeds. I think that Hans (the Chinese) look at Us the such héron which extends its neck (wait until We act). We are anxious and let us can find any more peace, neither sitted, nor slept, and food lost for Us any taste. We will set in motion Our army and will start the celestial punishment! Like Us you (Zhang Fei) soaps honest and solved, comparable with Zhao, brave man, and that your name is celebrated closely like by far, We authorize you to reach the statute of noble and to direct the capital. Can be made respect the glory of the Skies, promote the Virtue, and punish the rebels. Such is Our wish . ”
At its beginnings, Zhang Fei was regarded as lower than Guan Yu, but of the advisers of Wei as Cheng Yu however went until affirming that Zhang Fei and Guan Yu were “able to fight against dix-mille men”. Guan Yu was generous towards its subordinates, but arrogant towards its equal. Contrary, Zhang Fei was respectful of his/her colleagues, but particularly tyrannical towards its subordinates.
Liu EIB would have often reproached him: “You kill and whip well too your own soldiers. It is however them which will be at your sides. Take guard so that one day you are not made betray by them! ”. Unfortunately Zhang Fei never tried to be corrected of this defect.
When in 219, Guan Yu is captured and carried out by Sun Quan, Liu EIB wants to lead a punitive forwarding to its opposition. In 221, he entrusts to Zhang Fei a few tens of thousands of men and was to join it in Jiangzhou. Unfortunately, Zhang Da and Fan Qiang, two of subordinated of Zhang Fei, betray this last by assassinating it and bring back its head to Sun Quan as a tender. Zhang Fei is named marquis de Yueheng on a purely posthumous basis. His/her oldest son, Zhang Bao, died young person and his/her son junior, Zhang Shao, took the changing of his father and was named intendant with the palate where it accepted the load of Master of the writings. The son of Zhang Bao, Zhang Zun, became also Master of the writings and followed Zhuge Zhan in Mianzhu where it was killed in a battle against Deng Have.
Zhang Fei in the popular traditionAlthough historically one knows nothing of his origins, in the legend, Zhang Fei, before meeting Liu EIB would have been a butcher. On its side, Liu EIB would have been a salesman of sandals of straw and Guan Yu a timid criminal. It is the meeting of these three characters which constitutes the introduction of the novel of the Three Kingdoms.
According to the traditional version, Zhang Fei would have met Liu EIB while this one read a call to the weapons to deny oneself the revolt of the Yellow Turbans. Liu EIB pushed a sigh and Zhang Fei challenged it: “Why push of so long sighs if you do not help your country! ”. Seeing the not very ordinary pace of Zhang Fei (it is represented traditionally like a giant with black face, the moustache like those of a tiger), Liu EIB revealed to him that he was family member imperial eager to help his country, and that if he sighed it were because he was too poor to bring an effective help. Zhang Fei then proposed to him to put its fortune at its service to engage of the men and to make forge weapons. A little later they met Guan Yu and all three made an oath of fraternity. Zhang Fei becomes then the little brother of the band, Guan Yu puîné and Liu EIB the elder one.
In the novel, Zhang Fei represents the sincerity and the honesties pushed to its extremes, but also impetuosity and ardor. Its bad character will be turned over more once against him, not knowing to be diplomatic when it is necessary. Its problems of alcoholism will lead Liu EIB more once to the disaster: it will make one day whip a Drunk Lu son-in-law, however an ally, just because it tests hatred towards this last. Lu Drunk will be avenged by attacking the city at the time when Zhang Fei drunk died, capturing all the family of Liu EIB at the same time.
However Zhang Fei will be shown always honest with extreme towards Liu EIB, sometimes until the absurdity, going until attacking Guan Yu when he is convinced that this one joined CAD CAD. It will dedicate a pitiless hatred towards Drunk Lu when this one misses respect towards Liu EIB by calling familiarly it “small-brother”. Of the same Zhang Zhao will attract itself its lightnings when it calls Liu EIB by its social first name (Xuande) instead of addressing itself to him by its titles. It will be about to assassinate Dong Zhuo when this one criticizes Liu EIB for its modest origins. It will go even until making whip a corrupted imperial inspector who required of Liu EIB a bribe. Even Zhuge Liang at the beginning of its service caused in Zhang Fei of great angers, not being able to support that Liu EIB chooses such a young person as Master and strategist. However all these people were then allies.
However in spite of its defects, Zhang Fei had several brilliant deeds to its credit, most impressive being the following one: all alone vis-a-vis the army of CAD CAD which counted: 10000 men, it will push by charging a howl which will reverse part of its adversaries of their mounting and made flee the other.
However these are the defects which lead it to its loss: saddened by the death of his brother sworn Guan Yu, it sinks in an alcoholic depression and whips all the soldiers who had misfortune to displease to him or not to show enough zeal to the task. Two of them, furious of this treatment, decapitates it in its sleep of drunkard.
Sanguo Zhi, Chronic of the Three Kingdoms
- Sanguo Yanyi - Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Simple: Zhang Fei Zh-classical: 張飛
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