The department of the Low-Pyrenees was created with the French revolution, the March 4th 1790 pursuant to the law of the December 22nd 1789, starting from the Béarn, of the three Basque provinces (Labourd, Low-Navarre and Soule), of the Gascon grounds of Bayonne and Bidache thus of some Paroisses of the Soubestre attached administratively to the Subdélégation of Saint-Sever.
One can note the presence of two enclaves of the Hautes-Pyrénées gathering five communes in the east of the department.
The the Low-Pyrenees took the name of Yrénées-Atlantiques the October 10th 1969.
See also: History of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
The department of the Yrénées-Atlantiques belongs to the area Aquitaine. It is bordering on the departments of the Landes, the Gers and the Hautes-Pyrénées, as well as Spain (Province of Huesca, Communauté Forale de Navarre, Gipuzkoa). It is bordered in the west by the the Bay of Biscay (Côte Basque). The chain of the the Pyrenees crosses the department of is in west of the Col of Aubisque to the Ocean.
See also: Geography of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
ClimateThe Yrénées-Atlantiques know a variation of altitude of almost 3000 meters between the points low and highest.
Several types of climate are thus met. The average temperature of the department drops since the plains until the most raised tops, where it can snow at any period.
The temperature known as normal is that of the plains: it is exceptionally soft. The climate of Gironde has several characteristics:
- weak variations in temperature
- frequency of the rains.
See also: Climate of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
List of the companies of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
See also: Economy of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
DemographyThere does not seem to be particular name to designate the inhabitants of the Yrénées-Atlantiques. The Western part is mainly inhabited by the Basques and the oriental party by the Inhabitants of Béarn, who since the Revolution and the creation of the department share the same department. However of 1790 to 1969 the inhabitants were the Low-Pyrenean .
See also: Demography of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
List of the personalities of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
See also: Culture in the Yrénées-Atlantiques
LanguagesThe French is the official language, as in the remainder of the French territory.
The languages autochtones are two:
- the Basque ( will euskara out of Basque) is spoken in the villages about the Basque Country French. The road signs is bilingual, and this Basque ( Euskara batua ) is taught in the colleges, the colleges and the Ikastola K. There exist also Basque dialects as the Souletin which are still spoken into Drunk as well as the navarro-labourdin and the labourdin.
- the Béarnais is spoken in the Béarn as well as the Gascon in the agglomeration Bayonne - Anglet - Biarritz (in which all the same the Basque is much more present). The road signs are even trilingual in Bayonne (French, Basque, Gascon). The inhabitant of Béarn is taught as of the nursery school in the calandreta S and public schools.
The Béarn and the Basque Country French, offer all the gastronomical specialities of South-west:
- crystallized Foie gras, , steaklet and other dishes derived from the duck
- the Pipérade
- the madiran, wine produced in Hautes-Pyrénées, Béarn, and Gers.
- the pacherenc
Béarn developed some specialities:
- the Boiled chicken
- the Garbure
- the jurançon, dry white wine or marrowy
The Basque Country has also its specialities:
- the Axoa
- the Pepper of Espelette
- the Basquaise chicken
- the Basque Cake
- the irouléguy.
As for famous the Bayonne ham, it is common to the Béarn and with the Basque Country because it is prepared near the Salines of the whole of the catchment area of the Adour.
See also: Basque House, House inhabitant of Béarn
The social life and policy of the Basque S are organized around the etxe or etche , because only the owners household heads of a house attended the assemblies of the village. It is the initial element of integration in the community. The elder one of the family inherited the house.
Like the etxe, the Basque house, the box (or ostau ) inhabitant of Béarn is the angular stone of the identity of the family. The social hierarchy was established on the basis of “box” transmitted with the whole of the grounds to the elder one. The house inhabitant of Béarn is built with rollers of the Gave gray in the mortar. Tiles punts or more frequently of slates are present on the roofs. One of the essential characteristics of the house inhabitant of Béarn is thus her roof: the slope can reach 50°, or even more.
In the Basque Country as in Béarn, the houses vary according to the valleys, the geographical surfaces.
See also: Tourism in the Yrénées-Atlantiques
List of the deputies of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
- List of the senators of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
- List of the general advisers of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
- List of the presidents of the general advice of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
Certain local political movements of the west of the department require the partition of the Yrénées-Atlantiques, and thus administrative separation in two departments: the Basque Country French and the Béarn.
See also: Political of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
With regard to the Intercommunalité, the department counts 31 inter-commune structures with clean taxation, the Communauté of agglomeration of the Pau-Pyrenees, the Communauté of agglomeration of Bayonne-Rebated joint-Biarritz (CABAB) like 29 communities of communes.
List of the prefects of the Common Yrénées-Atlantiques
- of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
- Old communes of the Yrénées-Atlantiques
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