At the Geopolitical level , years 1990 are remembered by the collapse of the Soviet Bloc and the end of the Cold war. As well in these countries as in Occident, this event accelerates the decline of the communist ideology and sees a great number of countries converting with the Libéralisme. The Popular republic of China which opens with the international business and the overseas investments. This redéfition of the balance of the powers leads to the emergence of single “a Superpuissance”, the the United States, and the introduction of a “Nouvel world order. ” The principal consequences are: the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact and the adhesion of country of Central Europe with the Organization of the treaty of the North Atlantic (NATO), the German Reunification, the second war of the Gulf against the Iraq, relative a nuclear Disarmament of the great powers, the Agreements of Oslo like attempt at resolution of the Israeli-Arab Conflict.
Years 1990 are remembered by the democratization of Internet and the passion for the “New technologies” with the boom of the Start up S. the decade sees the beginning of the Biotechnologie S with the first Clonage, the genetically modified organizations, the beginning of the Séquençage of the human genome and the introduction of the Test DNA by the Scientific police. The Global Positioning System (GPS) becomes operational. In mathematics, the Théorème of Fermat is proven by Andrew Wiles; in astronomy, the existence of the black Matter, black energy, dwarf brown and of planets out of the Solar system is confirmed, and the Space telescope Hubble brings a revolution.
In Occident, one notes the popularization of the Techno. The Hip hop goes up in power and becomes one of the most popular styles at the end of the decade. The AIDS becomes an important epidemic, in particular in the Pays in the process of development, and influences the sexual behaviors ( Safe sex ). The democratization of the Television by cable and satellite and the liberalization of the waves bring a diversification of the programs. The Video game also develops.
Chute of the the USSR
- the countries ex-Communists of the Central Europe and Is begin their difficult transition towards an free society, democratic and thrives
- Guerre of Kuwait (1990-1991) known as also war of the Gulf or second war of the Gulf if one counts the war Iran-Iraq
- Sommet of the Earth of Rio de Janeiro (1992)
- Guerres of Yugoslavia
- Génocide of Rwanda
- Guerres in Chetchnia
- Civil war in Liberia (1989-1996)
- Protocole of Kyoto (1997)
- First world forum of water, Marrakech (1997)
- Civil war at the Sierra Leone
- Tony Blair
- Fidel Castro
- Hugo Chávez
- Jacques Chirac
- Vladimir Poutine
- Bill Clinton
- Mikhail Gorbatchev
- Jean Chrétien
- Brian Mulroney
- Kurt Cobain
- Felipe González
- Carlos Salinas de Gortari
- Saddam Hussein
- Boris Ieltsine
- Jean-Paul II
- Helmut Kohl
- John Major
- Nelson Mandela
- Slobodan Milošević
- Under-commander Marcos
- Carlos Menem
- François Mitterrand
- Diana Spencer
- Franjo Tuđman
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- Deployment of the integrated business packages in the companies
- numerical Linux
- Convergence (its, image, video, tele signal and telephony, etc)
- Cloning of the ewe Dolly on July 5th 1996 in Scotland
- Popularization of the cellphone (or mobile)
- Discovered first Exoplanète
- Propagation of the microcomputer in the Western hearths
Music and cinemaAcid jazz
Also called groove jazz, is a musical style which combine influences of jazz with elements resulting from the drunk person music, funk, disco music and hip-hop.
Appearance of the movement Grunge with Seattle with in particular the groups Alice in Chains, Nirvana, Pearl Jam and Soundgarden and of the phenomenon pop brit in the middle of the years 1990 in England. Democratization of the metal and more generally of the " large son" in almost all the productions of disques.
Appearance of Britpop, with for main actors Blur, Oasis, Radiohead, Sweden, Supergrass, and The Liveliness.
Quelques popular artists during the years 1990:
2Pac, Aerosmith, Air, Alice in Chains, Björk, Blur, Bon Jovi, Boyz II Men, Burzum, Celine Dion, Deftones, Depeche Mode, Dr. DRE, Elastica, Eminem, Emperor, Erasure, Garbage, Garnett Silk , Green Day, Guns Pink, Jamiroquai, Jean-Jacques Goldman, Korn, Louise Attaque, Madonna, Mariah Carey , Mayhem, Metallica, Mylène Farmer, Ophélie Winter , Nirvana, Black Desire, Oasis, Pascal Obispo, Patrick Bruel, Pearl Jam , Queen, Prodigy, Radiohead, Rage Against The Machine, Red Hot Chili Peppers, REM, Roxette, Silverchair, Sizzla, Soundgarden, Spice Girls , Supergrass, The Offspring The Smashing Pumpkins , The Liveliness, U2, US3, See also : category: Group music of the years 1990 .
See the List of French films left in the years 1990
Economy & company
World project: data-processing Passage to the year 2000 (Y2K)
inflation is broken in France in the years 1990.
- As from 1991, the dark ex-USSR in the economic depression. Each republic is folded up on itself and carries out exchanges with its neighbors in the form of barter; economic space splits up; number of production lower approximately 10%. Inflation starts to reach vertiginous levels. The capacity, paralyzed, does not dare to take the economic measures which are essential.
- Dissociation of the Yugoslavia, Wars in Yugoslavia.
After the collapse of the communist bloc, the government aid with the development in Africa falls from 14,7 billion dollars in 1990 to 10 billion in 2000.
The Middle East & Arab world
the Egypt benefits from its engagement in the war of the Gulf. The United States erases most of the civil and military debt. The mode launches out in a vast program of liberalization: privatization and opening to the foreign assets. The the IMF and the the World Bank push Egypt to liquidate the public sector of the economy. The first adopted measure is an easing of the control of the loads. Growth rate amounts to 4% with the beginning of the year 1990. The national revenue however is badly distributed and unemployment rate is about 20% of the active population. Most of the population life on the subsidized prices of the basic commodities and on family solidarity. The money references of the emigrants of work also make live a good part of the population.
- the Syria benefits from the war of the Gulf on the economic plan and receives various assistances. Hafez el-Assad maintains a policy of opening to the private sector investments.
Asia & India
- In the years 1990, the economy of the North Korea receives successive shocks: the USSR, then Russia, ceases providing him energy at preferential prices; China requires the payment as of its supplies to the world tariff; the floods devastate areas maintained less and less well.
- Fall of the growth to the Japan during the last decade of the century. The Nikkei index reached in 1991 the index record of 38.000. At the same time the prices of the real estate increase in an unreasonable way. A financial bubble was created in partially autonomous Japan of manner. As soon as the prospects for profitability are dissipated, it burst. Nikkei deflated, and oscillates between 14.000 and 18.000 in the years of low growth of the last decade of the century.
Fine of the recession to the the United States.
Referendum on the sovereignty of Quebec of the remainder of Canada lost by the souverainists by 1% (Québécois Referendum of 1995).
Russia puts a term in years 1990 at the favorable former economic conditions with Cuba (purchase of sugar to an advantageous course, sale of oil and equipment to preferential rates). The United States maintains their embargo, and the cuban economy, undermined by the incompetence of its leaders, crumbles. The mode castrist is seen in the obligation to make concessions, without giving up the system of the sole party and the repression of any dissidence.
Plane of the Minister for the Cavallo economy against Argentinian inflation in (1991): considerable lowering of the customs duties, privatization massive, tax reforms to increase the income and reduction of the expenditure, total convertibility of southern in dollar atfixed rate (in 1992, new the peso is worth a dollar), prohibition made at the central bank finance the budget deficits by the creation of currency, end of the indexing of the wages and the financial contracts. Thanks to the Cavallo plan, inflation falls of 800% per annum in 1990 with less than 5% in 1995-un too high rate nevertheless for a peso related to the dollar, from where a deterioration of the balance of payments - currents, an increase in unemployment, a deceleration of the very perceptible growth as from 1995. The following year, Menem returns Cavallo.
Simple: 1990s Zh-min-nan: 1990 nor-tāi Zh-yue: 1990 年代
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