- Dryness of 1976
- Dryness with the the Fine Sahel
- of convertibility dollar/or (1971).
- Conference of the United Nations on the Environment in Stockholm (1972).
- Diplomatic relation between the the United States and the Popular republic of China. Although president Richard Nixon returns visit to China in February 1972, it will be necessary to wait until 1979 establishing a true diplomatic relation.
- Israeli-Arab War of Kippour (1973, Israel, Egypt, Syria).
- Alain S. meets Paul Braffort (1972, Saclay (France)).
- First oil crisis, economic crisis (1973).
- Coups d'etat and military regimes in Latin America (Chile 1973, Argentinian 1976, the USSR (1979).
- Second oil crisis (1979).
- Conference of Helsinki (the Relaxation East-West ).
- the Scandale of Watergate involves the resignation of the US president Richard Nixon (1972 - 1974)
- Prise Saigon by the Communists and end of the Guerre of Vietnam (1975)
- Léonid Brejnev
- Richard Nixon
- Houari Boumediene
- Valery Giscard d'Estaing
- Fayçal Ben Abdel Aziz Al-Saoud
- American Cinema of the years 1970
- List of French films left in the years 1970
- Alain Souchon
- Barry White
- Bee Gees
- Black Sabbath
- Bob Marley
- Smart Boney M
- Claude François
- Creedence Clearwater Revival
- Curtis Mayfield
- David Bowie
- David Cassidy
- Deep Purple
- Earth, Wind and Fire
- Eric Clapton
- France Gall
- Giorgio Moroder
- Isaac Beam
- Sleeve-board Dimech
- Jethro Tull
- Janis Joplin
- John Lennon
- Johnny Hallyday
- Joe Dassin
- KC & The Sunshine Band
- Kool & The Gang
- Led Zeppelin
- Marvin Gaye
- Michel Polnareff
- Mireille Mathieu
- Patti Smith
- Peter Frampton
- Peter Tosh
- Pink Floyd
- Sex Pistols
- Stevie Wonder
- Sylvie Vartan
- The Clash
- The Doors
- The Eagles
- The Jackson Five
- The Organizes
- The Ramones
- The Stooges
- The Who
- Van Halen
- ZZ Top
See also : category: Group music of the years 1970
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- Microprocessor, Compact disk, first laser writer (IBM 3800)
- Personal computer
- the Rock psychedelic unloads in Europe: it comes from the United States in mobility protestor, the Californian ones at the head of file: (head of gondole with Venice Beach Beach|English article]]): they are the seventies .
- the Reggae makes its beginnings out of Jamaica with Bob Marley, Jimmy Cliff, …
Economy & Company
- August 15th 1971: End of the “Gold Exchange Standard”: collapse of the monetary System resulting from the Agreements of Bretton Woods in 1944.
- the president Richard Nixon decides the inconvertibility of the dollar compared to the Or, following the permanent tensions on this Monnaie. This decision is made without consulting the partners (other Western countries and Japan).
- But the system international currency rebuilt with Bretton Woods in 1944 rested out of two principal pillars. A system of fixed exchanges between currencies (with very weak limits of fluctuations) and recognition of the dollar as currency of international reserve ( ace good ace gold ), one spoke about Gold Exchange Standard (standard of exchange gold). The accumulation of the US deficits still increased by the expenditure related with the Guerre of Vietnam involved in the Années 1960 and the first years of decade 1970 of very strong pressures on the American dollar. However its function of Monnaie of world reserve obstructed the United States very little and did not incite them with better controlling their deficits.
- the Dollar being convertible in Or, at least in the exchanges between central banks, the danger that the other countries require conversion into gold of their surpluses of dollars was serious, which makes it possible to include/understand the decision of Nixon.
- With this American “Diktat” the system of Bretton Woods entered in anguish, since the value of all the currencies were determined by reference to a gold weight, the pressures on the dollar could only worsen, which occurred. Several meetings, in particular in Washington in December 1971 (Agreements of Washington of December 18th, 1971) took place to agree on a devaluation of the American currency and to try a replastering of the system, in February 1973 the weakness of the dollar led to a readjustment of the parities, insufficient however to stop the continuation of its fall. In March 1973 intervened the abandonment of the fixity of foreign exchange rates of the various currencies compared to the standard dollar, which allowed the central banks other countries to cease buying dollar to maintain its parity, according to the rules of the game of the system in force.
- a new system international currency known as of “floating Changes” was born thus. It is always in force in 2004, even if for this time the Euro has made its appearance.
- Golden age of OPEC (1974 - 1978). The high oil prices get for the producing States enormous incomes (23 billion dollars in 1972, 140 in 1977) which they hasten to spend while buying of the armaments and the consumer goods or while investing. The purchasing countries must accept a puncture on their purchasing power.
- Process of disindustrialization to the the United Kingdom: in 1970 - 1979, 15 000 employment is removed in naval construction, 60 000 in the iron and steel industry, 57 000 in the coal extraction, 250 000 in the textile, 80 000 in automotive engineering. The share of industry in the active population falls to 38% at the end of the years 1970 (48% in 1961) whereas the services increase by 47 to 58% in same time.
inflationary Phase in Italy.
- With the beginning of the year 1970, the Hungary increases its commercial and cultural contacts with the noncommunist countries. One authorizes the economy to be taken as a starting point the principles of free economy what benefits all the population. The standard of living of the Hungarians is at the neighborhoods of 80-90% of the European average in the years 1970. The real wages and the household consumption have triplet compared to the pre-war period and the Stalinist time.
Economic measures in Poland: price freeze, wage increase, reduction of the work period, extension of the social security, construction of new residences. The government Edward Gierek, to start again the growth, implements little by little a deep economic reform by giving a greater autonomy to the companies, by privatisant part of the commercial sector, by more largely opening the foreign trade towards the Occident. Poland is involved in debt near the Occidentaux countries to buy equipment and patents, cash to refund its debt while exporting towards the West of the competitive articles manufactured thanks to the weak Polish wages. But the consecutive economic crisis with the Oil crisis will prevent it from carrying out its objectives, and it will be necessary for him to be folded back on the markets of the socialist countries and especially of the Soviet Union, where the commercial transactions starting from 1976 are carried out in inconvertible Units of Account whose face value appreciates devaluation of the dollar progressively. Poland will not gain enough hard currencies to refund its debts (which pass from 764 million dollars in 1971 to 7,4 billion in 1975, 26 billion in 1981) and its growth will be blocked by it (for lack of a regular provisioning) with fatal consequences on the standard of living.
In Soviet Union, series of measure is taken to try to increase the agricultural outputs: monthly salary for the farmers, refined management sciences, use of manure and machines, development of the irrigation, regrouping small farmers of the Kolkhozes and reinforcement the Sovkhozes, great centers of farm belonging to the state. These measurements, associated with favorable weather conditions, cause the harvests records in 1973, 1974 and 1976.
- Of 1979 with 1981, bad harvests follow one another in the USSR. It block the investments. At the end of the years 1970, the Soviet economy enters a structural crisis: she is confronted with a relative rarefaction of the resources (labor and capital), of which the conditions of use brutally worsened (the ratio unfinished constructions/investment increases). The difficulties of the everyday life increase (shortage of housing, tail in front of the stores of food, scarcity of the manufactured articles). A social layer privileged (cultural political elite, soldier or) appears. The poor performances of the economy as regards service to the consumers support the development of corruption at the era of the stagnation. The underground economy develops and the implied managers of undertaking amalgamate with the higher realms of the party and the apparatus of State, which accept bribes. It follows a demoralization, and the flights on the work places multiply. Contrast between the daily behaviors and the socialist values develops cynicism (rate of raised divorce, alcoholism). The aggravation of the situation, in an organized mode which does not admit the dispute, results in a political apathy.
The Middle East
- Sadate approaches the Occident and turns to the economic liberalism. The Egypt is given new resources: Egyptian emigrants working in the Persian Gulf and the Iraq, reopening of the Suez Canal, tourism. The economic growth starts again (7% per annum on average between 1972 and 1986).
- Hafez el-Assad undertakes in Syria a policy of economic liberalization while preserving the socialist ideology. The foreign imports to some extent are authorized, the private company reappears.
- the important financial resources that the rise of oil in 1973 gets to him make Iran the dominant power of the Persian Gulf; the army obtains modern equipment. But the policy of anxious modernization of the shah of the interests receipts, particularly those of the Shiite clergy which pokes the popular discontent. The mode is maintained thanks to a brutal police force.
- the incomes of the Saudi Arabia passed from 2 billion $ in 1970 to 43 billion in 1977. The surpluses of incomes are invested in the Western countries in the form of banking placements (recycling of the petrodollars).
- the First oil crisis puts a stop at the High growth and slows down the commercial expansion of the Japan. The growth rate of GDP is divided by more than two (4% per annum between 1973 and 1990).
- the Japanese investments abroad pass from 10 to 80 billion dollars of 1974 to 1987.
- In South Korea, of 1973 with 1990, GNP believes of 8,6% per annum, whereas the population increases only at the rate of 1,5%. Agriculture and the mines increase only slowly, but the sectors of industry (+ 12,6% per annum), of the building, transport and communications, of the financial activities show a dynamism astounding and involves the whole of the economy following the structural changes which ensure their preponderance. The active population employed in agriculture passes from 63% to 18% of the total, with the profit of industry and the services. The proportion of the active population graduate of secondary education passes from 14% in 1970 to 38% in 1990.
- Of return to the capacity, Deng Xiaoping aspires to a powerful, respected and modernized China. For that it is necessary to accelerate the economic growth, to leave the country poverty, to multiply the material stimulants, without falling into chaos and anarchy. It makes a point of putting a term at the Cultural revolution, with the preference granted then to the militancy with the detriment of the expertise. Its pragmatism makes him give an absolute priority to the “four modernizations” defined by Zhou Enlai in 1973 - 1975. Nationalist (for the questions of HongKong and Taiwan), Deng knows that the modernization of China passes by its opening: technology and the capital can come only from the Occident. But to prevent that the country is not dislocated and does not yield to its centrifugal temptations, he refuses a democratization which would make lose with the party its monopoly of the capacity. Its program consists in gradually transforming the economic bases of the socialist system, while preserving a Leninist political organization.
Simple: 1970s Zh-min-nan: 1970 nor-tāi Zh-yue: 1970 年代
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