Elements of context of the years 1920
See also: Years 1920
The crisis of 1929
See also: Crisis of 1929
September 3rd: beginning of the fall of the courses with Wall Street; the market remains constant.
- Wednesday, October 23: several thousands of speculators decide to be withdrawn.
- Thursday, October 24: thirteen million dollars of actions is proposed with the sale. At 11 a.m., riots in the contiguous streets and intervention of the police force; commit suicide of ten unknown speculators. At midday, creation of the Trade union Morgan which repurchases its own actions of bank; Joint Declaration of thirty-five the larger firms of brokings: “the market is healthy. ”
- Friday, October 25: many publicities pushing with the purchase in the newspapers.
- Monday, October 28: resumption of panic: only 9,2 million actions on the market of the stocks and shares.
- Tuesday, October 29: “black Tuesday”: 16,4 million titles moreover on sale, bankers selling in their turn (of which the Morgan Trade union).
- Wednesday the 30th - Thursday, October 31: Rockefeller announces the repurchase of title, short resumption of confidence.
- Friday the 1st er November: closing of the purse.
- Monday, November 4: reopening and new collapse; the purse functions only three hours per day to avoid panic.
- Wednesday, November 13: end of the stock exchange Ace: the courses, to low, go back a little. The crisis passed to the sphere bancaire.
Whereas the Europe as a whole has important and various problems, the the United States cross the Années 1920 in a relative protectionist unconcern . The Roaring Twenties mark the entry in the consumption of mass; the Middle-class is affirmed like the engine of a company which is centred on the industry and the services. An unquestionable shift is born between new modes of production and a consumption anchored in reflexes from the 19th century. Taylorism and industrial support puts up after a fashion with outlets which remain restricted. General prosperity is accompanied of more than one true stagnation in the agriculture, in particular because of the withdrawal of the European purchases. To support this key sector of the economy and social stability, the US government urges a policy combining Subvention S and rise of the customs tariffs. Thus, if prosperity is real, a part is of speculative origin . In addition, in a context of contraction of the international business, only the capital is massively exchanged, in particular through the transatlantic loans and refundings. These financial operations engage a mechanism of speculation which supports the small carriers increasingly more, in particular in Europe. In the United States, the speculation is initially very mainly stock exchange and not, for example, real; and although the shareholders do not represent whereas a little more than 1% the Americans, that is enough to create an important shift between increase in the average stock exchange (+ 200% between 1922 and 1929) and increase in the profit of the companies (+ 50% in same time). The speculation punctures the economy and deprives the real Sphère of invaluable capital which does nothing but feed a financial Bulle. The month of September 1929 is marked by a war of the Interest rate S between the two major stock exchange places of then, New York and London. Of a minor crisis to the the United Kingdom, the American speculators generate by a sudden reversal of confidence a stock exchange panic of broad width.
The Thursday the 24th October, thirteen million titles is sold; “black Thursday”, more than sixteen million. The market index of Wall Street crumbles, and this stock exchange Crise very quickly moults in banking Crise. The banks not being refunded money which they massively lent, they even limit suspend to them Prêt S. Très quickly, the crisis cross the Atlantique and touch more or less violently and quickly the European countries, according to their degree of dependancy of the United States. The loans granted by the US banks are short-term, while the European banks concerned lend later on, to support the efforts of rebuilding. The money has suddenly missed to refund, the United States agree to create Loan-relay; but as from January 1930, this solution is not viable any more: the Economic crisis spreads. Some countries are largely touched, the such autarkical Italy of Mussolini.
Vis-a-vis this disaster, socio-economic measurements of adaptation of order must be taken by the political powers. Initially, and in the majority of the European countries, the traditional answers are proposed and applied; mainly, the Deflation - to reduce the money supply to ensure the short-term robustness of it - in particular by contracting the public expenditure; to reduce the request to support the prices.
In the United Kingdom, the economic difficulties are present since 1926. The crisis of 1929 constitutes a notable aggravation. As from January 1930, an advisory committee economic is created, which underlines the impotence of the government to manage the events. One short period of Tripartisme ensures the increase of the party Travailliste, but the first months are marked by the disorganization. In the United States, the crisis lasts until beginning 1933. The republican president Hoover sorrow with going against the liberal practices; it does not have besides the essential means of an active policy. To support the prices, of the official organizations products repurchase which Europeans are not any more able to import; but of the gaps structural and the opposition of the Congrès make that stocks are resold shortly after. The outline of a Social protection appears, with loans granted to the Federal states to subsidize the fight against unemployment. However, the majority of these short-term loans are refused, because nonrefundable by the States. Lastly, public works explode, to support employment. The crisis is propagated very quickly in Germany, as of January 1930. The United States suspends their loans; the bankruptcy of Kredit Anstalt in May 1931 is a second hard blow carried to finances of the country, because it held half of Austrian industry hitherto, very prosperous. To help Germany effectively and to stop the Unemployment taking gargantuesques proportions, the Moratoire Hoover is adopted and puts an end to the German repairs in 1931. The main axis of the policy known as of rectification is the deflation, tried by the chancellors Brüning and Von Papen. It is a complete failure: at the end of 1933, one estimates that 50% of the credits work for the State. In France, the crisis is later, because the share of agriculture in the economy is more important, the country has less of relationships to outside, and has of its colonial empire, and the strong franc: less than two thousand official unemployed in 1930. However, exports start to fall and the tried solutions are sometimes awkward, often contradictory: the political sudden starts, the lobbies in place prevent an effective installation and a regrouping of the structures. Following the example the United States, one completes great work (Plan Marquet), but contrary to the other countries, the fight turns oneself against the Inflation, and not against unemployment.
In front of the failures and to release itself from a crisis which has lasted sometimes for several years, of the more or less original solutions are tried in a general movement of nationalist fold. From these socio-economic transformations, therefore political, is born a strong cleavage between democratic regimes and authoritative States. Who more is, if the economic crisis occurs within the world “américano-European”, it is well with a complete Internationalisation that one assists during second half of the decade. For as much, distrust with international forever be also large. The organization of the world centered on Europe implose with the declarations of war of 1939.
Democracies in prey with the economic difficulties
During the first three years of the decade, the principal concern is the generalized Economic crisis.
With the the United Kingdom, a frank Dévaluation is the work of Labor a Prime Minister , MacDonald, called with the head of the government by George V in 1931. But the MacDonald liberal decides to accompany this measurement by a series of adjustments and supports, to ensure some balance in the budget. September 22nd, 1931, it is a undulation book which is decided, not a new devaluation: the subjacent idea is to let the market decide value of the book by suspending it convertibility-but Pound sterling, which crosses short to any speculation. This measurement is thus eminently political: at the beginning of 1932, the course of the national currency is stabilized in weak variations and a new course compared to gold is fixed. The country is also equipped, in addition to one balance in the budget, of a recasting of the customs system and a double insurance vis-a-vis the speculation: a financial mechanism, and a psychological defense. That makes it possible the United Kingdom to set out again on sound foundations. More original still, the Libre-échange is abandoned without care after the very broad victory of the preserving to the elections of 1931. Preferential exchanges are established with the colonies through the the Commonwealth. On the structural plan, the decayed and badly managed companies immediate post-war period and risking the bankruptcy is nationalized; one pushes with the regrouping of the other organizations remained solid, in the mines, transport… The phenomenon of Cartel lisation beats full sound, but “gigantism” appears with moreover small scales: the first popular department stores appear, for example. By a support for the Purchasing power and the installation of original modes of consumption, one allows the emergent middle-classes to be equipped in products electric household appliances S, and by there a revival of certain industrial sectors. A certain Anglo-Saxon logic of revival by consumption appears then and, like on the other side of the Atlantic, the central capacity finances actions carried out by the local authorities. A disappointing point so much for the members of the Labor Party than for the conservatives remains the Chômage, which is located still well above the frictional Unemployment in 1938, with 1,8 million unemployed compared with 3 million in 1932. Despite everything, and at the price of some Isolationism and a loss of sovereignty on the international plan, the United Kingdom succeeds in approaching the strong year 1939 of a real and welcome national cohesion.
To the the United States, the way out of crisis also comes from a political change. The public opinion is favorable to an intervention of the State and entrusts to the ex-governor of the State of New York, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the care to engage of the reforms. It launches with its team of advisers a first New Deal , based on the Budget deficit. 1934 is one year of rectification, but in 1935, a cleansing of the banking system, finances and currency is again necessary. At the time of the “100 days of Roosevelt”, a banking Moratoire is established to stop any panic and to improve morality of the financial institutions: the principal war is that of confidence. In addition, the presidency continues the policy of great work and support for agriculture, with new organizations of assistance and day before created at the time of the Agricultural Adjustment Act. The general objective is to allow a broad consumption in all the social layers of the population. Important innovation, the State becomes Actionnaire of many industrial society; but it does not prevent the regroupings frankly (National Industrial Recovery Act of June 1933). Vis-a-vis various social failures, in particular in the reorganizations, Roosevelt associates the Syndicat S with its action at the end of 1935 and engages second New Deal. An antitrust policy plus interventionist is followed and management is supported. The Federal states assume the right to arbitrate the collective agreements, which reassures the workmen. A starter of Social security is created with the Social Security Act of August 1935: insurance unemployment and old age, Law Wagner favorable to the trade unions… Second New Deal seems more effective, and contrary to the first, it was largely financed. A third shutter, from inspiration keynésienne, comes to close the action of Roosevelt in 1938. However, there remains 9 million unemployed in 1939 and the United States insulated itself.
In France, the year 1936 sees a great political upheaval occurring after several years of ministerial instability: in May, the legislative elections are gained by the left. Leon Blum is indicated Prime Minister at the end of a long month; enthusiastic and spontaneous strikes “celebrate” the victory. Waiting of reforms is large. Instead of devaluating the franc, the left decides on a framed undulation of the currency with the Franc Auriol. This measurement does not reassure the French. On the plan of the social reforms, the policy is however more vigorous: Blum wants to force the owners to negotiate with the trade unions. The agreements Matignon of the June 7th 1936 link two organizations of private law under arbitration of the State. The projections are notable and varied: Saturday been unemployed without wage cutting nor overtime (incentive measurement at the time of recruitment, but scuttled by a voluntary fall of the production by the owners), introduction of the Paid vacations (2 weeks per annum), variable wage increase (from 7 to 15%), provisions supporting the trade unionism within the company… To force employers to follow these instructions, the private agreement is transformed into law; finally, the agreement “by amicable agreement” was a failure. In addition, inflation cancels pay rises, the trade union rights pain to be essential and engages it does not take off after several months. On the structural level, companies are nationalized: the SNCF is created on July 1st, 1937, of the manufacturers of planes and Air France also. The Banque de France, although remainder private, passes under a narrow control of the State. The whole of this policy disappoints the Extreme left: the economic problems are too powerful and force Blum definitively to leave the capacity, after a return flash to spring 1938. The radical Edouard Daladier takes his continuation. Architect of the Agreements of temporarily fine Munich putting at the Crisis of Sudètes in 1938, it is firm in interior policy: by refusing any wage increase and by authorizing overtime, it approaches the policy of the adjoining countries. It engages of great expenditure by government orders and benefits from the good monetary context due to the work of Paul Reynaud. The Dévaluation of the franc with an undulation “with English” makes it possible to peacefully approach the last years of the decade on the financial plan, but the rectification is late and timid, and the divided nation.
Fascistic temptation in France
The political crisis and social that France crosses since the end of the Mad years leads, because in particular of the economic crisis, to an political instability marked by fascistic temptation.
France of the years 1930 is marked by several weights which prevent it from developing politically, socially and economically:
- a political crisis: the notorious instability of the governments of the Third Republic (on average a government every six months) in general involves a certain distrust with respect to the political community. The nonrenewal of this political community, its implication in certain particularly resounding politico-financial scandals (Business Stavisky in 1934) discredit the capacity.
- a social crisis: the shock of the First World War has evil to reabsorb. The weight of the war veterans, the brutalisation of the men during the war, some depresses collective and a Malthusianisme generalized solidify the company, without demographic vitality. The company also evolves to a company of mass, more urban (the bar of the 50% of urban population is crossed in 1931). The country world has evil to be modernized, for lack of financial aids. Social protection is developed very little.
All these tensions, worsened by the arrival of the world-wide crisis in 1931, make develop an important political dispute.
The Germany, as for it, sets up measurements of very an other order under the aegis Nazi. Of a small organization weakened during the Years 1920, Hitler made Nazi party (NSDAP) a major force of the German political field in 1932, while being based on the difficult context created by the Crise of 1929. In addition, the new organization of the party contributes to the successive failures of the Chancellors in place. If the workmen join the Communist party (KPD), part of the farming community, and especially small and average the bourgeoisies adopt the Nazisme. A simple and concrete program, as well as the support of several industrialists and a well orchestrated propaganda, ensure the success of the campaigns of Hitler and lead it to gain several electoral victories with the Reichstag, the German Parliament. The year 1932 mark the loss of control of the capacity in place, for lack of Parliamentary majority. In an tense atmosphere generalized maintained by SA, pushed to engage with the head of a coalition government of right-hand side, Hitler is named Chancelier the January 30th 1933 by President Hindenburg. Obtaining back-to-back the Legislative power, by the Law of the full powerss (March 23rd 1933), and the function of President, following the death of Hindenburg, Hitler undertakes in 1934 a complete reorganization of the country by a series of laws, sets up a totalitarian mode and racist. It recovers the Doctor Schacht like chair Reichsbank, then as Minister for Finance; a true-false news currency east creates: the Mefo-Wechsel. It consists of ackowledgements of debt exchanged by the companies. Its role is to prevent the monetary Inflation, but the failure of the system starting from 1937 leads Schacht to resign. In addition, the Nazis accentuate their pressure on the people Juif. The Lois of Nuremberg of September 1935 withdraw fundamental freedoms to them and more still; the first concentration camps are built and used to draw aside the political opponents starting from 1934. In same time, titanic work is undertaken in all the country: Plane Reinhardt over two years, then Plane Goëring in 1936. All in all, the German economy is closed again on itself and maintains its dynamics by a massive production armament and Ersatz in any kind. On the institutional level, Hitler wishes simple and easily controllable structures. All the new heads of undertakings are appointed by the Nazi party, and only one trade union is authorized, the Front of Work. In January 1933, the Germany counted six million unemployed; it is more officially listed by it any in December 1936. But this more or less artificial economy where the wages are partly replaced by payments in kind is unstable and involves in debt the State. Its horizon of medium term is incontestably the war and the territorial extension. This irrefutable fact is confirmed by an aggressive foreign policy: withdrawal of Germany of SDN in October 1933, remilitarization of the the Rhineland in violation of the Treated of Versailles and the entire country, Pro-Franco support for the S; Axis Rome-Berlin of October 1936 and Pact anti-Comintern of November 1936 with the Japan; the Anschluss of March 1938 is admitted by the democracies, but the discretion of the first years in obviously left room to a militarism assumed by the second world industrial power.
The Soviet Union knows since 1928 a saving in plan, work of Stalin. Years 1920 were remembered by the massive application of the Taylorisme in nationalized companies initially , then denationalized within the framework of NEP - a master key of inspiration Capitaliste considered to be necessary before the reforms favorable to the Prolétariat in the Marxist theory . Having leads to an unstable situation so much on the economic plan (massive agricultural production, weak industrial production) that on the social plan (emergence of supported classes, the such Koulak S of the campaigns), the NEP is replaced by a Planification, which results in the Collectivisation. Under mode of a totalitarian type, the plan avoids the hesitations, but also blocks the initiative. The Stalinist economic policy takes the total opposite course to the liberal economy, and goes well beyond the economy controlled, known as mixed or managed. To support it, of the strong structures are necessary. The plan supports the installation of a Bureaucratie, with the pejorative direction of the term. At the time of the foreground, industry is again nationalized, and the concentrated companies. As in Nazi Germany, the directors of companies are named. The investments are directed towards basic industries, said sector a: Sidérurgie, mine S, mechanical engineering… It is a question of preparing during five years the launching of a second sector B, which will be also constant five years during. However, the only vector of wages is then the State. If the industrial production increased well, though in proportions less than those announced by the statistics of State, progress is made at the very weak prices of wages and very heavy taxes. Following the example Italy mussolinienne, the country keeps away from the Crise from 1929 and its principal repercussions. The exchanges with outside being reduced to the strict minimum, the Russian people must organize themselves folded up on itself. In the field of agriculture, the nationalization is initially less frank than elsewhere. The farms of States, the Sovkhoz S, are rare: to avoid the expropriation of the peasants, one initially lets them be organized in Kolkhoze S, regroupings of villages fixing of the production targets. This system is a failure and leads to very hard interventions on behalf of the State to ensure supplements it collectivization of the campaigns. As well in industry as in the work of the ground, the human sacrifices are important. The foreground is in addition the occasion of a readjustment between these two sectors. Victim of the theory of Preobrajensky and the Optimization of the standards, the agricultural production falls. Its role is redefined: to provide the maximum of consumable food products to urban, while collecting the minimum of investment. That strongly slows down the mechanization of the campaigns. Collectivization is completed in disillusion in 1938 with a second plan (1933 - 1937). It is marked by several Rationnement S obligatory between 1931 and 1935 and a famine making of the million died in 1932 - 1933, in particular the Holodomor in Ukraine, by a stressing of the individual constraints which enters in conflict with the research of the maximum Productivité, and especially by a stronger Propagande. The third and last plane leads finally the country to the war: while denouncing the Militarism hitlérien, the capacity develops industries of war.
The nationalism of extreme left also touches the China, which starts the decade in a phase of major change. The Empire of the Medium left room to a République directed by the general Tchang Kaï-chek, who reached the capacity thanks to the Russian Communists - of which it gets rid in 1927, fearing their influence. The democratic powers Occident ales bring a financial support then to him. An authoritarian regime based with Nankin, organized by the Guomindang, undertakes to modernize the country (industrial, legal reforms…). The expansionist policy of the Japan in the Russian territories and Chinese additions with the difficulties of the government, in catch with the incipient communist opposition. Of 1930 with 1935, Japan, already present in Korea since the end of the 19th century, multiplies the Protectorat S (the such Mandchourie) and approaches even Beijing. In same time, the mode in place loses its credit near the agricultural work force. The Communiste S join around Mao Zedong, which founds a “Soviet republic” in the Jiangxi, in 1931. Encircled by the troops of Tchang Kaï-chek, Mao Zedong undertakes with his partisans the mortal Long walk towards the North-West, first movement towards the access to the capacity which comes in January 1935. Actually, Tchang Kaï-chek agrees to form a United front with the Communists to be opposed to Japan, which launch out to the attack of China in 1937: thus the Sino-Japanese war begins. This fight will continue throughout the decade and during the Second world war, with the advantage of the Communists, who have the confidence of the resistant people.
In Italy, the capacity is monopolized since the October 30th 1922 by the fascist Mussolini. Benefitting from the spite of the people after the end of the war and divisions of the traditional parties, Mussolini seized the country with the Parti national fascist by subduing any attempt social revolution. The fascistic dictatorship took seat as of 1926. By a skilful propaganda, thanks to the Agreement of Lateran with the Church in 1929, and by means of a official Interventionism replacing the Liberalism first years, Mussolini takes root in an increasingly autarkical country. In 1933, the creation of the Institut for the industrial rebuilding is the occasion of a broader takeover of the production structures. With a protectionist policy definitely accentuated starting from 1934, the fascists secure social peace, essential to their projects of territorial extension. The Politique natalist testifies to the dream of a second Roman Empire. The invasion of the last free country of Africa in October 1935, the Ethiopia, mark rupture with the close democracies. By the voice of SDN, they decide economic sanctions towards Italy. Mussolini then decides to approach closest to Hitler, with which the relations hitherto had been rather tended. Fascistic Italy takes the Nazi Germany in model. In 1939, Mussolini is an accomplished dictator supported by a almost caricatural Culte of the personality, but the oppositions are done openly. The army, in particular, mainly remains faithful to the King; in addition, of internal criticisms weaken already Duce.
In Central Europe and Eastern, the democracies instituted on the ruins of the central empires (ex- Austria-Hungary, ex- German Empire, ex- Russia tsarist) must concern in the Années 1920 the too important challenges for their institutional youth. The land reforms, which must bring peace and reorganization of the company in the republican model are failures where the local Aristocratie S are opposed to it. Better results are obtained by the countries subjected to the foreign aristocracies, of German influences in particular. However, the democratic lack of tradition and the socio-economic difficulties leave the free field to the first dictatorships. The Crise of 1929 has very strong repercussions in these agricultural countries. The stagnation which occurs by the fall of the prices ensure a support for the fascists and the national-Socialists. Moreover, these movements are subsidized starting from 1933 by Germany and Italy. Vis-a-vis this danger, the capacities in place have authoritative reactions. In the majority of the countries, the opposition parties ultra-nationalists are prohibited; Parliaments are dissolved, as in Austria (by the chancellor Dolfuss) or in Romania. In 1939, only the Czechoslovakia, artificial State however divided between several Ethnos group S, preserves a parliamentary Pouvoir. Contrary to the great dictatorships of Western Europe, these modes rest on traditional forces of the company, mainly the Armée and the Église. It thus do not have any ambition Révolution naire.
The same applies in southernmost Europe. Thus in Spain, where the general Franco opposed the majority republican ambitions with the support of the army, the Church, and soon of Germany and Italy. If the USSR intervenes in its turn to support the opponents with Franco, France and the United Kingdom remain as for them inactive. Between February 1936 and March 1939, the Civil war tears the country, until the full victory of the new dictator.
Between 1933 and 1935, the Nazis are thus drawn up only vis-a-vis in Europe, but the years 1936 and 1937 see the great dictatorships joining vis-a-vis the democracies isolated and folded up on they-even. Until the declarations of war of September 1939, the military spirits model the international context.
Art with the weapons, walk towards the war
From 1933 to 1939, the Réarmement characterizes the Interior policy many countries, Germany at the head. Indeed, two great political tendencies model or influence the national policies following the crisis of 29: modes of Extreme-right-hand side and the Communism. Totalitarian organizations exert within this framework a considerable influence on the political and social reorganization of the countries, but also on the economy, and this until the global scales. All in all, the key word of the years 1930 is “modernization”, a mechanism necessary to the moment or the States must adapt to survive multiple crises. However, there is a plurality of process through planet, processes which lead to largely different organizations no matter what strongly interdependent. Whereas controlling them choose the national fold, the mechanisms of a new interdependence of the states are set up. To conclude the necessary reforms, but also to clash, as well on the economic grounds as military, the established powers and certain emergent countries are brought to cooperate and set up international groups of influences several natures. The open Coalition S and the implicit agreements muzzle SDN.
Importance of the colonial empires
The European powers, that they are democratic or dictatorial natures, rest on their more or less broad colonies to face the crisis, in an atmosphere of international relations more tended suddenly. During the Années 1920 developed in the colonized countries bourgeoisies local and Prolétariat S, sign of a strong influence of the metropolises. The colonized traditional companies are indeed put in competition with the controlling powers. demographic Rise and Urbanisation are also important. With the Crise of 1929 occurs a massive backward flow of the request of the metropolises, which involves price collapses and local bankruptcies. Precursor, the United Kingdom suspends the Libre-échange and seeks support in its broad colonial empire by founding preferential shopping streets by the Ottawa agreement of 1932. The search for minimal outlets is engaged by all the colonizing powers. In addition, colonization meets only one weak opposition in metropolis. The colonial Exposition of Paris in 1931 is a success, element reassuring of a country in interior crisis. However, in the colony S, the theses progressists of Wilson make their way; the first oppositions appear at the great day. 1929 is the year of toughening of the nationalist movements hitherto moderated, especially with the the Middle East, in Indo-China and India. The United Kingdom continues on launched pragmatic by granting the first Indépendance S total or partial: Iraq in 1930, Egypt in 1936, India Act of 1935… But the colonial main forces are gathered under the aegis of the Crown by the creation of the the Commonwealth as of 1931, which ensures the British capacity a distant but effective control of its autonomous and sovereign territories from now on. In an opposite logic, France shows itself very firm and refuses the majority of the projections proposed by the nationalists in its colonized territories. Solidified in its structures of direct administration, the metropolis plays the chart of repression to maintain the unit of its territories.
Finally, in 1939, the bonds between metropolises and colonies are stronger than ever, but the movement of Décolonisation is already launched. This very new situation slices with that of 1914. The crisis of 1929 also took part in the acceleration of certain upheavals in the regional authority: thus, the littoral countries of South America “are put at contribution” in an active way in the effort of fast production which occurs in Europe, starting from the middle of the years 1930. The United States occupies several countries in Caribbean Sea (Haiti, Nicaragua…) until in 1933, end of the policy of the Big Stick wished by Roosevelt. With the other end of planet, China knows many upheavals as for its borders, which brings it to the civil war and the war with Japan.
Fulgurating sociocultural transformations
The Années 1920 were favorable to a cultural blooming of Europe. In spite of the difficulties, this movement continues in the democracies during the years 1930. The Entre-deux-guerres is not the occasion of the development of important a Popular culture. By rejection of the values middle-class woman, the popular classes and proletarians imported their own traditions and folklore well, but these elements of social identity hardly resist the urban life and industrialization. In the place, it is a culture “of mass” which makes its appearance, to the favor of new the Média S and Loisir S. In a consuming dash, the large vectors of culture start to touch all the social classes. The sport is modernized by gaining its popular gallons, with the appearance, and of the competition, and the Sport-spectacle. In the field of the written press, one seeks to touch specific targets like the young people and the women, and one launches the fashion of the Band-drawn fantastic after the quite real crisis of 1929. The radio makes it possible to disseminate information and music, in particular the American Jazz. The Cinéma is undoubtedly the success more fulgurating, once again supported by the United States. Besides at the dawn of the years 1930, the film obtains the word and works diversify quickly to satisfy all the tastes.
The tendency is very different in the new dictatorships. It is with the development of cultural totalitarianisms that one assists in the Nazi Germany, fascistic Italy and Russia of Stalin. Fascism is the first ideological movement to massively use the new media of information to its advantage. It acts in same time to educate, by the Propagande, and to distract. Thus in Italy the radio is it nationalized and transformed into vector of an entertaining subculture. It is associated with the sport, which take military forms, and with the cinema, which quickly becomes the absolute weapon of the propaganda of State. It is difficult for the protestors spirits to diffuse their productions elsewhere than in newspapers and places of clandestine spectacles, the creation being overall fixed. All the means are good to ensure the enrollment of the spirits, of the imposing architecture of the regretted Nazi regime to the songs niaises celebrating Empire Romain.
The good-bye with the collective security
Empêtrée in more or less successful ways out of crisis, the democracies privilege social peace and remain relatively neutral vis-a-vis the successive provocations of the European and Eastern dictatorships. Initially opposite, these are combined by pacts and agreements various as from 1935. The predilection for the Pacifisme does not prevent certain courageous initiatives in the democracies which are France and the United Kingdom. Louis Barthou engages in 1934 a bringing together with Italy, to try to encircle the Reich, and also tries to make mean Germany and Russia. Pierre Laval succeeds to him in this task, but privileges Italy in the USSR. The strategy is however fragile and the English do not support it.
Mussolini engages in the conquest of the Ethiopia extremely of a semi-official agreement: it was committed helping the democracies against the Nazi regime, n the other hand of compensations to be defined. The diplomatic imbroglio of the division of Ethiopia completes to throw discredit upon SDN, principal instrument of payment of the conflicts of the democratic Western block. The organization had indeed already disappointed the public opinions by weak declarations of disapproval addressed to Germany in 1934, at the time of the remilitarization of the Rhineland. With the problems of interior policy and the victory of the left in 1936, France is erased a little more; it is however this same year as a “general repetition” of the Second world war is played in Spain. Italy satisfies Hitler by concentrating its forces on the Hispanic peninsula, which leaves the free field to Anschluss already organized. Mussolini prepares as for him the bases of a new Mediterranean Empire. The Spanish civil war is also the heavy occasion to test tactical and armament. The bringing together between Fascism and the Nazism contrasts then with the obliteration of the democracies, which preach a policy of appeasing at the time of the turning towards the war.
1937 are a false relaxation. For the English democrats, it is the victory of peaceful not-interventionism; for Hitler, it is the calm one before the storm and the time of the last agreements. By taking the direct control of the Wehrmacht, the dictator coordinates closely Anschluss. A little later and in a relative indifference, Hitler is interested in the Sudètes and fastening of an “Aryan” population like to rich territories on the industrial sphere. This ambition, less violent in its demonstration than Anschluss, is paradoxically the event release of a collective awakening in France and in the United Kingdom, which point out their Réserviste S, just like in Italy and the USSR. The September 29th 1938, Hitler, Mussolini, Daladier and English Chamberlain however put agreement on a victory without war of Germany, which obtains all the asserted territories. The illusion of peace is not shared however any more by everyone. In fact, Hitler wishes to invade very whole Czechoslovakia, as well for its resources as to remove a potential ally of the democracies. The takeover by force of March 15th, 1939 completes Czechoslovakia. The hesitation of the democracies lasts; Stalin is wary and decides to treat with Germany to avoid any confrontation with his direct neighbor. September 1st, Germany invades the Poland: the democracies decide finally to declare the war on September 3rd, carried by the United Kingdom.
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