The Yangzi Jiang (in Chinese; Pinyin: Yángzǐ Jiāng ; EFEO: Yang-tseu-Kiang ; another transcription: Yangtsé ) or Chang Jiang (, the “long river”), formerly Blue river , is longest Fleuve of Asia (6 300 km).
With a flow of: 30000 m ³ /s, the Bleu river are the third longer river of the world after the the Amazon and the the Nile. It takes its source with the Tibet, with more 6 600 meters, in the Mounts Tanggula, a landscape extreme of glaciers and covered with snow grounds, strewn with moraines, swept by strong winds and deprived of any vegetation. It is called in Tibetan BIS chu (river of the female of the yak).
He traverses: 6300 km before joining the Eastern China Sea, in the north of Shanghai, more the big city of China. It curves through the provinces of the Qinghai, the Yunnan, the Sichuan, the Hubei, the Hunan, the Jiangxi, the Anhui and the Jiangsu and crosses the immense agglomerations of Chongqing, Nankin and Shanghai.
At the time of its course, it receives water of more than 700 affluents and drains a catchment area of 1,8 million square kilometers, and each year it pours nearly thousand billion cubic meters water in the China Sea and carts thousands of tons of silt off the coasts. Chang Jiang feeds out of water 40% of the Chinese territory and 70% of the rice production.
With its birth, it is called the Tuotuo river, and as of the first affluents below: 5000 m of altitude, it are called gilded Jinsha river or “sands” and run with sharp pace towards the south by delimiting a natural border between the Tibet and the Chinese province of the Sichuan; its course is then parallel to those of the rivers Mekong and Salouen; it is in this area that he traverses the Gorges of the Jump of the tiger, Canyon of more than: 2000 m of depth. On the level of the town of Dongchuan, it leaves abruptly towards north and curves in the mounts Hengduanshuan with the Yunnan, then begins an inflection towards the east where it is joined by important affluents (Yalong, Min and Jialing) which transform it into a gigantic muddy river, whirling and charged with waste and rejections of the 120 and farmer inhabitant million of the basin of the Sichuan.
Before being joined by Jialing, it crosses the immense agglomeration of Chongqing, one of the interior big cities of the China with its 5 million inhabitants, and which holds also the not very envieux record of the acid rains for all Eastern Asia, of the sulfurous clouds permanently overhanging the sheltered valleys of this great industrial center.
After being joined by Jialing, the river crosses the immense throats of the median extents of the river, called the Three Throats but made up of three successive series of throats.
The Three Throats offer an extraordinary spectacle which attracts many tourists and allowed the development of a true profitable tourism industry with many boats sailing between Chongqing and Yichang. These throats offer a mysterious atmosphere, when the fog and the clouds of water droplets fill up them and wrap the rock cliffs and pitons. At the time of the risings in summer, the level of water rises of more than 100 meters and navigation then becomes very dangerous and very risky.
After famous the Three Throats, the river continues its race towards the coast, but while widening and while calming down, and crosses several big lakes of which those of Poyang and Dongtin. It is in this part that one can start to find fresh water dolphins ( Lipotes vexillifer ) in the process of disappearance, of the Esturgeon S, the spatulas and of the alligators of China ( Alligator sinensis ).
By approaching the coast of the Eastern China Sea, the river curves by its “nine meanders in the shape of intestine” before being spread on a vast delta, occupied by arable lands, lakes, ponds, innumerable small islands and thousands of hectares of roselières.
Its more important tributary is the river Han, which joined there to Wuhan.
The Barrage of the Three Throats (三峡大坝) in Yichang (宜昌) with the Hubei is on this river. It is located at the limit of the mountainous region of High Yangzi and the plain of the Yangzi Means, downstream from the Three Throats and upstream of the existing stopping of Ghezouba, where the river has a flow of: 14300 m 3 /s. Its power envisaged in 2009 is of 22500 MW.
Another important stopping, that of Xiluodu, are in the course of construction to 770 km upstream, between the counties of Yongshan in the province of Yunnan and of Leibo in the province of Sichuan. The complete opening of the power station is planned for 2015, with a power of 12600 MW.
Water pollutionIn May 2006, of the Chinese experts published reports alarming on the state of the Pollution of the river. The provisioning of Drinking water of the agglomeration of Shanghai could become problematic if no solution is found. The other problem relates to the number of animal species populating banks of the river: their number passed from 126 in the middle of the Années 1980 to 52 in 2002.
According to Lu Jianjian, professor of a university of the East of China, 40% of the Déchet S of the country are poured in the river, that is to say approximately 25 billion tons each year
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