The wrestling , term which can be regarded as a Faux Anglicism because derived from the expression wrestling ace wrestling edge - “catches it as you can” - (see Catch Wrestling), than one calls also professional fight with Canada and professional wrestling in the anglophone countries, is a sport-spectacle of American origin which is held on a boxing ring and which can be seen like a distance derived from the Pugilat or Lutte gréco-Roman, but which remotely enormously in the direction where the Combat S are scénarisés here. Indeed, the exit of each meeting is given in advance by bookers (i.e. scenario writers), and each protagonist interprets most of the time a character (caricatures often extreme and simplistic of “nice” or “malicious”, called gimmicks ) of which the goal is above all to make react crowd.
Contrary to the other sports of combat, a match of wrestling serves as a pretext for tell a history to distract the spectators and to push them to be caught with the play. For example, the all-in wrestler playing the part of “malicious” (heel) spends his time “cheating” of kind to force crowd to hoot it. Thus, the fans have fun by encouraging the “nice one” (face) to gain its match. In spite of this aspect sometimes large-puppet, wrestling has an undeniable sporting aspect requiring a physical condition out-par of its participants, able to achieve real physical prowesses and especially, without being wounded (in the majority of the cases).
It however is very ignored that the importance of the setting in scene and the importance on the sporting side vary much according to the styles of wrestling. The wrestling practiced in Japan, the Puroresu, is for example very different from the wrestling practiced in the United States by the large companies which are WWE or TNA. The Lustred Free (practiced in Mexico) and the Catch Wrestling (practiced in Europe) are other examples of styles which are rather different from the “traditional” design of wrestling.
Rules of the matches
Utility of the rules to wrestling
The rules of a match of wrestling are used to simulate the competition, to designate a winner but especially to enrich the history by a match. For example, an all-in wrestler taken in a catch of tender can give the illusion to the public which it will give up then to catch the cord to observe the rule of the rope station-wagon and to oblige his adversary to break the catch.
Deduct of three
It is the technique most used to gain. It is the Tombé ( Pinfall in English) which consists has to rivet the shoulders of its adversary to the boxing ring during three second minimum, deducted by the referee while striking the boxing ring.
Solution to get clear :
- It is imperatively necessary to take off its shoulder of the ground before the account of 3
- Attraper a cord of the boxing ring which forces the referee to break the calculation of three, but this fact rare because mainly, fallen are made loins cords to prevent that the adversary abused the trap.
One can also block his adversary in a taken tender and to force it to give up, the adversary taps ( tap out/tapping out in English) the mattress. A Knockout is also regarded as an abandonment, the referee communicates with the all-in wrestler, if this one does not answer the referee, it loses.
Solution to get clear :
- To catch a cord of the boxing ring which forces the attacker to break its catch.
- To strike, projetter, to reverse the attacker while making him miss its catch.
It is possible to gain on an external calculation (or count-out in English) where the adversary remained too a long time apart from the boxing ring, in general time that the referee counts up to 10. If the other all-in wrestler (who remained on the boxing ring) goes down from the boxing ring, the referee is obliged to remake the calculation. Generally, a match finishing kind cannot see a belt championship to change hands even if the challenger gained the match, it is a rule which is not constant but which very often returns.
A traditional example of use of the boxing ring out is when an all-in wrestler heel who holds a championship voluntarily loses his match by count-out. It preserves its title thus all while thus attracting itself the lightnings of the public.
If two all-in wrestlers are all two out of the boxing ring at the end of the calculation, the referee declares the end of the double match by count-out , it is thus a tie. This exit of the match only is seldom used because it is often not very interesting in a competition to make a tie.
Lastly, it is possible to gain on a disqualification of the adversary.
It is disqualified if it:
- Met of the closed punches. (This rule is development however often little to see been unaware of with WWE for example)
- Utilize an object as arms to cheat.
- Attacks the referee.
- Refuses to carry out an order of the referee (ex: refusal to release a catch, to strangle the adversary during more than 5 accounts of the referee, several punches on an adversary resting on the turnbuckle).
- Interference: if a person not implied in the combat intervenes in favor of one of the all-in wrestlers, this one is disqualified.
- To employ an attack prohibited such as for example a blow in the intimate parts.
See also: Attack with wrestling
There existed before a rule which prohibited the projection of its adversary over the third cord (higher). This rule is not observed however any more.
There exist also " matches without disqualifications" where all the blows are allowed and where the arbite does not serve which has to make the account of 3.
A rather rare exit of match can see the referee stopping the match and declaring losing an all-in wrestler wounded or strongly bleeding.
" Not déclaré"
A match can be " not déclaré" ( " No contest" English ), when an event or an interference not implying the two all-in wrestlers prevents the match from finishing. In this case there, there is not gaining.
MatchThere exists many standard of match. We can also see engagements by Tag TEAM.
In the United States, a match of wrestling generally lasts between 5 and 10 minutes for a normal show and 15-60 minutes for a show of greatter importance (standard Pay-Per-View: WrestleMania and SummerSlam is most famous). Traditionally, the match opposes nice ( face ) to malicious ( heel ) but it is not systematic. Of course, the way in which an all-in wrestler gains a match is useful before very advancing the scenario of its competition (in the jargon of wrestling, feud ) with its adversary. The competitions are obviously decided by the bookers and do not reflect (or not inevitably) a true animosity between the all-in wrestlers concerned. Insofar as two all-in wrestlers implied in a feud will have to often fight one against the other, it is even preferable that they are meant well in order to be sure that the matches do not degenerate into authentic settlings of score and do not involve real wounds. There exist real competitions, for example between Edge and Matt Hardy, or between Bret Hart and Shawn Michaels.
The exit of the match is always predetermined by the bookers and must obviously be accepted by the participants so that the match proceeds correctly and without misunderstanding. Gaining is not inevitably the most talented all-in wrestler or most popular: victories and defeats are useful before very telling a history. The most important matches lengthily are scénarisés, choreographies and are repeated. For the matches of less importance, the participants are satisfied to determine and repeat the key periods (called Spots): catches risked, jump since the third cord, brawls out of the boxing ring, inversion of situation, catch of completion, etc the remainder is impromptu.
Also let us specify that the interviews and the long declarations with the microphone play an increasingly significant part of the spectacle because they are used as setting in scene for future matches. Generally, the least skilful all-in wrestlers to express itself orally are accompanied by a manager being used to speak in their place and to develop them with the eyes of the public. One also calls upon Divas, i.e. young women who accompany towards the boxing ring the all-in wrestlers in evil by popularity, and who draw to their foal the attention of the public from their plastic.
Less popular in certain countries like France, wrestling unchains passions with the the United States (and more generally in North America) but also with the Japan, with the Mexico, in Germany, Italy… It is indeed not rare to see certain stars of true wrestling becoming Vedette S of the show American businesses, all media confused, like Hulk Hogan and The Rock, become actors.
A joke summarizes in a a little caricatural way but not completely distorts the way in which wrestling is perceived throughout the world: “In Japan, it is a sport. In Mexico, it is a religion. In Canada, it is a tradition. In the United States, it is a joke”.
Let us quote here some great names of the American wrestling which, following the example Zidane in Football or Schumacher in F1, marked their discipline forever. Mentioned some lines higher, Hulk Hogan can be regarded as the person in charge of the popularity of modern wrestling such as one knows it today, in particular thanks to its victory against The Iron Sheik for championship WWF heavy trucks the January 23rd 1984 with the Madison Square Garden of New York (following a conflict with the company of protection of the animals, the World Wildlife Fund, in April 2002, championship WWF is currently known under the name of WWE, World Wrestling Entertainment in the place of World Wrestling Federation). Hogan, supported by its legion of fans, launched a phenomenon of mode known under the name of Hulkamania which allowed has its federation to sign partnerships with American cabled large chains (even MTV) and to propose the first offer of wrestling televised available in payment to the meeting ( pay-per-view ): WrestleMania, the March 31st 1985. WrestleMania since then became the great annual tradition of wrestling, a little like the Super Bowl for the American football. Other all-in wrestlers will remain them also high-speed motorboats of the world of wrestling, such as Andre the Giant, Bret Hart, Shawn Michaels, Sting, The Undertaker, Triple H, Stone Cold, or Ric Flair.
The world of wrestling owes its great popularity with Vincent Kennedy McMahon says Vince McMahon or " Vinny Mac" , big boss of organization WWE. This one is the heir to a long line of people invested in the world of wrestling. While becoming owner of the WWF (ex-WWF) at the end of the years 1970, it gave to wrestling its noble letters. Often depicts like a visionary, he indeed succeeded in giving birth to from the exceptional scenarios to lead to memorable combat. In the middle of the years 1990, the popularity of the WWF started to beat wing, with the profit of WCW, federation held by the billionaire Ted Turner (who made come in his show most famous fighters WWF). Will then engage what one called the " Monday Night Wars" : every Monday evenings, the emission Monday Night Raw of the WWF dealt with Monday Nitro of the WCW on concurrent chain, and all lownesses were allowed to obtain the largest score of audience! The exit of this fight was a long time dubious but failed to put the WWF on the straw. Finally, the daring ideas of McMahon and the bad management of the WCW (detailed in the book of R.D. Reynolds and Bryan Alvarez, The Death off WCW ) signed the death warrant of the WCW which will be repurchased for a bread mouthful by McMahon.
Among the strategic errors which precipitated the fall of the WCW: incapacity of the successive bookers (in particular Eric Bischoff and Russo Vince) to renew their scenarios, their too great confidence in the popularity of stars growing old (Hulk Hogan, Kevin Nash, Lex Luger) in matches unceasingly more puffing, with the detriment of less known but more talented all-in wrestlers, a multiplication of the ill-considered expenditure… One can consider that the error of judgment which was the last nail of the coffin of the WCW was to leave an actor, David Arquette, to gain the belt of champion of the heavy trucks with a simple advertizing aim. The event was so unexpected that all the American press made the echo of it, certainly… but the fans, furious to see gaining Arquette, were diverted in mass and in a final way of the WCW.
Opposite, McMahon could inject new blood with its federation. Forsaking the side “family entertainment” of the wrestling of the years 1980, it turned to the public of the teenagers and young adult by offering a product adapted to the generation MTV. Deprived of its stars, it manufactured news of them, transforming into high-speed motorboats of the all-in wrestlers rejected by the WCW such as Steve Williams and Mick Foley, which became among the largest stars of the wrestling of all times to the WWF under the names of " Stone Cold" Steve Austin and Mankind. It broke the traditional roles of face and heel ; from now on, the character adulated by crowd would not be any more one proud hero advising with the children “to say their prayers and to take to their vitamins” (as Hulk Hogan did it) but a rebel, individualistic bad lot and without mercy (mainly personified by " Stone Cold" Steve Austin), moving back in front of nothing to gain and making fun of the rules. McMahon misa also on the Violence and the Sex. This era of change is known under the name of Attitude Era . One of the operations which made it possible the WWE to obtain more fans was the invitation of Mike Tyson in Wrestlemania. The fans were then diverted WCW to see whether the boxer would take share with the action. Finally, he catcha not but the public discovered really " Stone Cold" Steve Austin and turned over never again towards WCW.
Today, the WWE does not have any more any serious competitor in the world (in terms of economic power and scores of audience at least), having absorbed its two principal rivals, WCW and ECW. There remains nevertheless a very great number of other still active federations in the United States, such as TNA (Total Nonstop Action) or RoH (Ring off Honor). The federations known as “independent” (of small size, whose shows are generally not diffused on television, and who do not hold any franchise agreement with the all-in wrestlers who occur there) are always popular near the smarts (see more low lexicon).
Canada, Japan and Mexico also accommodate important federations, less based on the “ sports-entertainment ” and more directed towards the sporting or dangerous side of wrestling.
The great secrecy of wrestling was a long time to protect its scriptée nature. One can estimate the consent of nature scenarized of wrestling in the middle of the years 1990. Previously, the all-in wrestlers who played the part of malicious ( heel ) were not especially to be seen in public places in company of their supposed colleagues being nice ( face ). At the time of each one of their appearances on TV the all-in wrestlers were to continue to play the part of their character (or gimmick ), to be made call by their name of scene and the masked all-in wrestlers were not especially to show their true face. This internal code of allegiance to the safeguarding of the mystic of wrestling is called the Kayfabe .
It is considered that it is Vince McMahon , the owner of the WWF and the WWE who was the first with to break the Kayfabe and to admit that wrestling was faked. That allowed some of its foalta, like Hulk Hogan , not to have to answer the charges of doping carried against them because of their use of steroids anabolics because if wrestling is not a true sport, to dope kind is not to cheat!
Incarnated characters (gimmicks)The majority of the all-in wrestlers have a Gimmick. The gimmick evolved/moved much with the wire of time: to the beginning they were limited to the simple behavior of the all-in wrestler in the boxing ring (that which complies with the rules/that which does not respect them), they then evolved to the facets of personality (narcissistic, courageous…) for finally becoming very precise (a biker, a billionaire…). Nowadays, the not very realistic gimmicks tend to disappear, one prefers to center the characters on the personality of the all-in wrestlers (for example Edge has a look of rock'n'roll star but its gimmick does not consist in making it pass for a rock'n'roll star).
Wrestling in France
Wrestling knew its apogee in France in the years 1960. The shows were frequent, not only in fairs or at the time of special evenings as with the honor of the July 14th, but also on television with same of the representations in primetime, legendary French all-in wrestlers like “the White Angel” or “the Small Prince”. Wrestling disappeared little by little thereafter, suffering from its reputation but also from a problem of renewal of generation. He knew a sudden start in the years 1980, especially on television with Canal + which in 1985 bought the rights of WWF and later four of its more important Pay per view, but this remained that the setting in front of American wrestling, appreciably different from the European style.
Channel +, diffused the emission WWF Superstars , then " WCW Nitro" from 1997 to 2000, and again " WWF Superstars" from 2000 to 2002. In 2000, AB Groupe obtained the rights on WCW, and diffused WCW Monday Nitro on RTL9 and WCW Thunder on Action. Channel definitively stopped wrestling on its antennas in 2002, for lack of money whereas it was in full financial crisis at the time. The WWE spent time little afterwards on RTL9 with a fan as a commentator, Christophe Agius, shouldered by Philippe Chéreau. However, the time compared to the diffusion with the the United States was important, it was up to two months (one month currently), the explanation would be that the setting in French comments would spend time, since it is not carried out in the studios of the WWE. Wrestling starts to make its return, WWE SmackDown! is diffused on NT1 starting from 2006, and diffuses from now on RAW, the pay per views of the WWE are from now on all available in DVD in the newsagents, and federation WWE has returned to France for the first time for 14 years the April 24th 2007, with the Zenith with the branch of Raw. The 5800 tickets were sold in less than 4 months through the word of mount of the fans of wrestling of the Web. It was an enormous so much awaited success for this return. Just after the advertisement of the " sold-out" , at the beginning of 2007, the organizer announced a second show is planned for September 14th 2007 with the Palais Omnisport of Paris-Bercy for the Smackdown branch!.
French wrestling has been to him only the shade of itself for its hours of glory, but he also is entitled to this renewed interest, and this revival. There exist currently 5 organizations Frenchwoman having a significant activity:
Wrestling Stars. (WS)
- the International Wrestling Wrestling Alliance (ICWA)
- France-Wrestling (which uses the name Fighting Spirit Federation for its male official receptions and Queens off Chaos for the female official receptions)
- the Association Professionals of Wrestling (APC)
- the French federation of Occupational Wrestling (FFCP)
The WS is oldest of these promotions, which enabled him to be anchored in the French landscape while having been the only organization to make spectacles during a certain time. It is a promotion very discussed at the fans who reproach him many things: to explicitly assert a wrestling which is not scripté, to propose identical spectacles regularly, not to emphasize the talents of the WS in favor of older but less powerful all-in wrestlers… But the spectacles not being inevitably of bad quality, crowd is often with go although certain aspects of wrestling to the WS make squeak teeth certain fans like the fact that the WS regards its product as " wrestling sportif" , not scenarized, which is completely false. Also, it is reproached much the WS for declaring in the media which she is the only organization of wrestling in Europe.
The FFCP, which is a reincarnation of the old association of the same name, is a rather comparable promotion with the WS on many points of view and in particular the discussed aspect. In particular, its president Marc Mercier is the subject of critical sharp on his way of emphasizing his association and his person in the media. The aptitudes of all-in wrestlers FFCP are also called into question because the great majority of those are beginners coldly left school FFCP.
The FFCP and the WS assert a European style, to see French, which would be completely opposed to an American wrestling. Actually, this claim is not founded because their wrestling is very only little tinted Catch Wrestling. The only use of the paperboards (with the WS), and of the rounds (with the FFCP) can bring them closer to the European style.
The International Wrestling Wrestling Alliance (ICWA) of which Pierre " Booster" Fountain is the president, and Christophe Agius the vice-president, made his appearance in 2002. Its style is opposed to the WS and the FFCP: it takes as a starting point the wrestling practiced in the United States, become a standard, and proposes a resolutely modern wrestling while making inter alia regularly coming from the recognized foreign all-in wrestlers. This standpoint their was worth the lightnings of the defenders of wrestling " with the ancienne".
France-wrestling is in same optics as the ICWA, a modern promotion. She wants to be however more event-driven by using almost only foreign all-in wrestlers of which sometimes some American great names (Kid Kash, Lance Hoyt…). Two major facts carried out by France-Wrestling are to have made a show with the Stade de France at the half-time of a match of Rugby, and to make come soon prestigious promotion American Pro Wrestling Guerilla.
The APC proposes a wrestling rather comparable with that practiced in France in the years 1960. It occurs rather regularly with the Studio Jenny with Nanterre.
- Queens off Chaos (female wrestling) http://www.queensofchaoswrestling.com
- France Wrestling http://www.france-catch.com
- WS http://www.catchsportif.fr
- ICWA http://www.icwacatch.com
- FFCP http://www.ffcatch.com/explorer/main.htm
- APC http://www.catch-wrestling-boxe.com/
Movement of wrestling
- Taken wrestling
- Taken preparation (wrestling)
- Taken tender (wrestling)
- Technical air of wrestling
See also: List of the terms of wrestling
- Face (wrestling)
- Heel (wrestling)
- House show
- Squash (wrestling)
- Triple Crown Champion
- Power-Wrestling site on the results
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