See also: Wilson
Thomas Woodrow Wilson , (December 28th 1856 with Staunton, the United States - February 3rd 1924 with Washington), is the twenty-eighth President of the United States of America. He is elected for two mandates of 1913 with 1921.
Pacifist convinced, Wilson succeeds in keeping the United States apart from the conflict during the first three years of the First World War. It is unwillingly that it intervenes and this is why it launches the idea, which does not succeed, of an authority of international cooperation, the Société of the nations.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson is born the December 28th 1856 with Staunton, in Virginia. His/her father is Pasteur of the church presbytérienne and the Woodrow young person receives a strongly impregnated education of his beliefs; he is also marked by his disaster and memories of the war of secession which it involved. At 19 years, it enters to the Université of Princeton then begins studies of Droit. It settles as a lawyer but at the end of one year it resumes its studies and turns to the Histoire and political sciences. It presents its Thèse of doctorate to 30 years; an analysis in favor of a greater capacity of the executive within the central government which became traditional studies in political sciences. Influenced by British theorists like Edmond Burke, Wilson is a nostalgic liberal of the democratic purity of the first years of the republic. He resigns himself to a career of professor of history but dream to engage in policy. In 1902, he becomes president of the university of Princeton and launches out in a vast reform of the educational system.
The Democratic party contacts it in 1910 and presents it as a candidate to the post of governor of the State of the New Jersey. He is elected and, in hardly a year, launches out in a reform of the electoral laws, candidate nomination by direct primary elections, in order to prevent the political machinations. He quickly points out himself by the chiefs of the party at the national level and succeeds in being made designate candidate of the Democratic party in 1912. Its fellow candidate is a Gouverneur of Indiana whose notoriety remains from now on related to this note:: “the only thing which this country needs, it is of a good cigar to 5 hundreds”.
Its electoral campaign is based on the elimination of the industrial conglomerates, the creation of a federal tax on the income and of the senatorial elections to the Vote for all. He is opposed thus to Theodore Roosevelt which is in favor of a presidential capacity extremely, parking freedoms, whereas it defends competition like factor of balance.
The presidential election of 1912 is true triangular between the candidate of the Democratic party, the outgoing president and candidate of the Republican party and finally Theodore Roosevelt who founds his own party progressist when it cannot obtain the nomination of the Republican party. Woodrow Wilson is elected thanks to division within the Republican party; the total of the votes of Taft and Roosevelt is indeed higher than that obtained by Wilson.
March 4th: Nomination of Woodrow Wilson as a twenty-eighth chair of the United States of America.
April 8th: Wilson makes a speech with the Congress to obtain the reform of the customs duties. He is the first president since more than one century to be itself addressed in person to the Congress.
May 2nd: Wilson signs the act of recognition of the Republic of China.
May 31st: Passage of the XVIIe amendment to the Constitution instituting the election of the senators by the universal direct suffrage. They were before elected by the legislative assemblies of each State.
August 27th: Wilson refuses to recognize the coup d'etat in Mexico which carried the Huerta general to the capacity without however deciding on an intervention of the United States.
October 3rd: Wilson signs the law strongly reducing the customs duties, increased by the preceding republican governments.
December 23rd: Wilson signs the decree of creation of the Federal fund, a system which makes it possible the federal government to control the banks and which replaces the Gold Standard.
April 21st: Wilson orders with the navy to invade the port of Vera Cruz, Mexico. The pretext is the arrest of some American sailors in goguette by the Mexican authorities. The Argentinian , the Brazil and the Chile try a mediation which will appear useless after the compulsory resignation of the president Huerta in July. The American troops will be withdrawn from Mexico in November.
August 4th: The United States declares their neutrality in the conflict between Germany and Belgium, France, the United Kingdom.
August 15th: Opening of Panama Canal.
October 14th: Wilson signs a major law on the regulation of the companies. It belongs to its program of “new freedoms” and prohibits the agreements between companies, the participations in the capital crossed in the same branch of industry etc It authorizes the sick leave, the strikes and the boycott by the workmen.
May 7th: Wilson and the US government address a protest to Germany following the torpedoing of the “Lusitania”, British steamer, by a German submarine and with the death of 114 American among the 1198 civilian victims.
July 29th: Wilson orders the intervention of the American troops in Haiti following the assassination of president Sam. Wilson justifies his action by the need “for teaching the democracy”.
January 28th: Wilson proposes the nomination of Louis Brandeis with the Supreme court, the first judge pertaining to the Jewish minority.
March 15th: Wilson orders the intervention of the American troops in Mexico to capture Pancho Villa which fights the legitimate Mexican government. American will leave Mexico only at the beginning of 1917 without to have succeeded in their mission.
May: Wilson orders the intervention of the American troops in Dominican Republic to restore the law and order. The American occupation will last until 1924.
June 3rd: The Congress votes the increase in the American army in answer to the deterioration of the relations with Germany.
June 16th: The Democratic party designates Wilson as a candidate for a second presidential mandate.
August 25th: Wilson signs the decree creating the Service of the national park.
September 3rd: Wilson signs the law instituting the 8 hours day for the railwaymen.
November 7th: Wilson is elected for a second mandate. Its electoral slogan “we are not in war, thanks to me” summarizes the foreign politics of its first mandate.
February 5th: The Congress cancels the veto of president Wilson opposed to the laws preventing the admission of the illiterate immigrants and restricting immigration coming from the countries of Asia.
March 4th: Nomination of Woodrow Wilson for a second presidential mandate. In its speech he recalls that the United States is neutral in the war between European Germany and the other powers but indicates that this position will be probably very difficult to hold.
April 2nd: Wilson makes a speech with the Congress to ask for a declaration of war of the United States against Germany. It will be ratified by the Congress and the president on April 6th.
April 14th: Wilson signs a decree creating an office in charge of information, propaganda and censure for the duration of the war.
May 18th: Passage of the law instituting the obligatory military service for the old young men from 21 to 30 years. The United States had not known military service since the end of the American Civil War.
December 18th: Passage of the XVIIIe amendment to the Constitution instituting the prohibition (manufacture, transport and sale) of alcohol.
January 8th: Wilson makes a speech with the Congress giving the list of the 14 points necessary to obtaining peace. “ The world must Be made safe for democracy ” (peace in the world for the establishment of the democracy) off claims in particular the creation of a “League Nations” (SDN)). The other points will be used as a basis for the Traité of Versailles of 1919. Article 10 of the Traité of Versailles creates the SDN. Wilson claims:
- end of the secret diplomacy,
- the freedom of Navigation and Trade,
- the reduction of the armaments,
- the payment of the colonial competitions,
- evacuation of the Russia
- evacuation of the Belgium
- restitution of the Alsace-Lorraine to the France,
- the correction of the Italian borders,
- the autonomy of the people of Austria-Hungary
- evacuation of the Romania, the Serbia and the Montenegro,
- the autonomy of the people not Turkish of the Ottoman Empire (after the Genocide Armenians)
- the recasting of a independent Poland,
- the creation of an association of the nations.
November 11th: after the signature of the Armistice, the German government agrees to open the peace negotiations starting from the “14 points” developed by president Wilson.
December 4th: Wilson embarks for France in order to attend the Conference of peace in Versailles.
January 18th: Wilson attends the opening of the Conference of peace of Paris.
February 14th: Wilson presents the Charter of the Company of the Nations during the Conference of peace of Paris.
July 10th: Wilson presents in person the Treaty of Versailles to the ratification by the Congress.
September 4th: Whereas the Congress still did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles, Wilson decides to traverse the United States to make speeches in favor of his ratification and to promote his idea of Company of the Nations. The Congress will vote finally against the ratification on November 19th.
May 5th: Wilson declares the illegality of the Communist party.
May 20th: The Congress, which continues to refuse the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, votes the end of the state of war with Germany. Wilson puts his veto.
November 20th: Wilson receives the Nobel Prize of Peace for his action during the First World War.
Wilson has an idealistic vision relations between the nations. He thinks that the American model can be exported because the people want of democracy. He thus makes pressure on the British government for a peaceful exit during the consecutive disorders with the Insurrection of Easter 1916 in Ireland. However he does not hesitate to order armed interventions in Mexico, Haiti and in Dominican Republic to facilitate the transfer.
The first mandate of W. Wilson is marked by his attitude with respect to the conflict which bursts in Europe, which will become the First World War. The the United States try to remain neutral, to note that 15% of the population were born in one from the countries in war and that a majority has family fasteners in these same countries, while continuing a policy of increase in military forces to face a possible forced engagement.
In 1917, is three years after the beginning of the conflict, the United States intervene massively in the war in Europe. The mobilization of the economy and the Industrie is total and the volunteers commit themselves joining the conscripts in the army.
In June 1918, more than two million American soldiers are engaged in the war and the victory is acquired. W. Wilson then hopes to modify the world order radically, to promote the democracies and peace. It takes part in the negotiations with the three other victorious European powers (the United Kingdom, France and the Italy) which end in the Treaty of Versailles. The ratification of the treaty runs up against the opposition of the Sénat and W. Wilson launches out in a speech campaign in the main cities of the United States to promote the treaty and its “League of the nations”. Its health suffers from it and an attack leaves it with half paralyzed. It will finish its manda recluse in the White House while making transmit its orders by his wife and a small team of faithful.
Although member of the Democratic party and competitor of Theodore Roosevelt, republican progressist, in the race in the presidency, Wilson and have a program to him of which objectives, if not means, are similar. On many points it continues its policy while fighting against the large industrial and financial conglomerates, by reinforcing the power of the federal government and even by setting up a service charged with the national parks.
W. Wilson is also the creator of the current banking system. It sets up the “Federal fund”, authority which controls the quantity of money in circulation and interest rate basic in the country and which defines the conditions making it possible the banks to have funds making it possible to grant loans.
During its mandate, the Constitution of the United States is amended three times:
- the April 8th 1913, the XVIIe amendment imposes the election of the senators on the direct Vote for all, which was not the case in all the States of the Union;
- in October 1919, the XVIIIe amendment institutes the Prohibition manufacture, distribution and sale of alcohol (a posterior law will prohibit consumption of it);
- in August 1920, the XIXe amendment grants the right to vote with the women.
Policy concerning the civic rights, the minorities and immigration
When in May 1915, a German submarine runs a British ship, the Lusitania, of which part of the passengers are American, the incident generates a strong resentment anti-German. It is in this climate that are held the elections of 1916 when the Socialist party assembles a virulent campaign against American engagement in the war. Its audience is limited on the national plan but it obtains more than 20% of the voices in certain cities of the east coast, of which New York. Individual freedoms are attacked by the passage of laws prohibiting the critic of the government and American of Germanic origin is the subject often of aggressions on behalf of the population.
The interior policy is also influenced by the attitude of American of origins allemande and Irish which support their compatriots opposed in Europe to the British.
On the other hand the mobilization of the men to make the war makes it possible to the women to hold a greater role in economics and politics. The XIXe amendment will give them the right to vote.
Wilson is also the first president to appoint a judge pertaining to the Jewish minority at the Supreme court (nomination with life).
The mandates of Wilson are also marked by the laws, to which he will be opposed without success, strongly limiting immigration starting from the countries of Asia and that obliging the immigrants to undergo a test to eliminate the illiterate ones.
SegregationistIn spite of the constraints of the national military service one also notes that the few 400000 black soldiers were affected in particularly exposed regiments or, on the contrary, relegated to tasks subordinates. In the navy, for example, in fact the blacks are with the kitchens.
Woodrow Wilson during his mandates consolidates the white of the south in a segregationist ideology.
W.E.B. Wood denounces in the newspaper NAACP, the Ségrégation which undergoes the blacks in the south. Woodrow Wilson answers " segregation is not has humiliation drank has benefit, and ought to Be so regarded by you gentlemen." - " The segregation is not a humiliation, but an advantage so that one can you regard as hommes."
Quotation included in the film Birth of a nation History off the American People : " The white men were roused has mother instinct off coil-safeguarding….until At last there had sprung into exixtence has great Ku Klux Klan, has true empire off the south to protect the southern country." Birth off has Nation. 1915."
the white men caused the instinct of the car safeguarding (or self-defense)… until justifying the existence of a true empire the KKK to protect the states from the south from America. film Birth of a nation 1915.
W. Wilson is represented for a second mandate in 1916. The only president to have gained two elections while receiving less than 50% of the popular vote. It is also that which basically transformed the power struggle between the legislative powers and executive by giving preeminence to this last. The president becomes a major actor of the American policy and becomes responsible about it.
W. Wilson gives up the capacity in 1921. It is withdrawn in its house of Washington, handicapped by its paralysis and a beginning of blindness. It continues in spite of very supporting its idea of “League of the nations” by publishing a book and articles. He dies the February 3rd 1924 and will be buried in the cathedral of Washington.
Wilson and the Congress institutes the celebration of the “Mother's Day” second Sunday of May as from 1914.
See tooProgressive Arthur Link, Woodrow Wilson and the Era. 1910-1917
Kendrick Lenient, The Presidency off Woodrow Wilson
American Zacharie Leclair, Woodrow Wilson and philanthropists vis-a-vis the Armenian genocide: an ignored demonstration of the wilsonism
- TEXTS on peace, the USA, 14 points of Wilson and the creation of the SDN
Simple: Woodrow Wilson
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