Wild cherry tree
See also: Wild cherry tree (homonymy)
The wild cherry tree ( Prunus avium ), also called " cherry tree of the birds " or " wild cherry tree " is a Arbre originating in the the Middle East pertaining to the kind Prunus of the family of the Rosaceae . With the Prunus cerasus, it is one of the two species of Cerisier S savages at the origin of the known varieties cultivated today under the name of Guignier (guignes with flesh soft, juicy, slightly acidulous) or Bigarreautier (bigarreaus with firm flesh, sweetened and of which there exists a multitude of varieties such as Burlat, marmot, Napoleon, reverchon, etc).
HabitatNaturally not very abundant and dispersed in forest, this tree is not a gasoline pionnière. It thus requires to open out an environment and a forest microclimate. It nevertheless is planted in mixed population, even in rows, requiring an imperative protection then the first years, because grouped more and more, it becomes very appétant for the Chevreuil S and more sensitive to the bacterial Chancre S, or to the Cylindrosporiose, or certain attacks of Insecte S.
DescriptionThe kind Prunus is composed of many gasolines which it is sometimes difficult to differentiate. The wild cherry tree is recognized without error thanks to two or three nectaries (small red glands Nectar ifères) located at the base of its oblong null and void Feuille S, toothed and pubescent in lower part.
The wild cherry tree is a large right and cylindrical barrel tree, with very fast growth, which reaches 20 to 25 m in height and 0,60 m in diameter. He saw approximately 100 years and is very demanding in light.
Its fine bark has tendency to exfolier.
Its Fleur S white pédonculées is laid out in small groups.
Port: Narrow and relatively clear summit, with ramification often regularly verticillate, at least in the young age. At the adult state, round summit with branches slightly falling down at their end.
- Rooting: powerful, deep roots and rather long traçantes roots, sometimes Sucker Nantes.
- Covered: light. Product a not very abundant litter, of easy decomposition, generating of good humus soft and improving.
UseIt is a required forest gasoline for the commercial value of its clearly rosy wood of color brown to yellowish, sometimes used in plating to replace the Acajou or other invaluable wood. It is required in furnishing, so much in solid mass than in platings (movable and seats of style). This use requires trees of beautiful conformation. Besides the importance of this request for the cabinet work marginalizes the other uses of wood (sculpture, turning).
The wild cherry tree like all the fruit-lofts, offers a wood having good mechanical properties (compressive strength, traction or inflection); nevertheless, it presents an average withdrawal to drying and can be some rather nervous times.
Aperitif with the wild cherry tree: one needs 40 sheets of wild cherry tree, 40 pieces of sugar, 1liter of red wine, 1 kirsch glass. To wash the sheets and to make them dry. To make macerate with the wine and sugar during 48 hours. To stir up the preparation, to filter it. To add kirsch. To bottle, stop and let rest before consumption. The liquor improves into growing old.
Biodiversity in danger?In many countries, because of its great commercial value, the wild cherry tree was the object at the 20th century of a strong selection Génétique, with plantations starting from Graine S very coming from some certified settlements , which certainly improved the straightness of the trunks and certain characteristic sought by the industrialists of wood or the cabinetmakers, but by impoverishing considerably the genetic inheritance of the species, which could enable him to better adapt to the Climate changes or the diseases which relate to it. This genetic impoverishment of the forest populations of planted wild cherry trees, could still be exacerbated by the appearance of new Cultivar S clones. Only in France, INRA announced in 2006 the marketing of 3 new cultivars (in the form of Clone S resulting from vegetative Reproduction) even more productive, with the trunk rectilinear and resistant to the cylindrosporiose, named:
- Gardeline (+ wood 44% of heart compared to the former average),
- Monteil (+ wood 52% of heart), and
- Ameline high-output , but requiring an early and intensive pruning to control the growth of the branches.
The objective is to produce a very homogeneous wood. The INRA does not specify how these clones could react to the awaited climatic modifications nor which could be the impact of an additional reduction of the biodiversity of the wild cherry trees (of which the wild cherries are an important source of food for many forest species and edges).
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