Western European Union
OriginsThe treaty of co-operation, primarily military (collective integration of defense and safety) is signed the October 23rd 1954 with Paris, between the France, the the United Kingdom, the FRG, the Italy, the Belgium, the Netherlands and the Luxembourg. It is a direct reactivation of the Traité of Brussels of the March 17th 1948, which makes following the failure European Community of defense. The head office of the UEO was then in London.
In the context of the Cold war, the first function of this alliance was to show with the the United States the European will to react vis-a-vis the Soviet penetration in Eastern Europe. While thus bringing the proof of their determination to be worked together, the powers signatories of the Treaty of Brussels contributed to overcome the reserve of the United States to be taken part in the construction of European safety. However, in practice, the UEO did not have really an effective role, since in the facts, all the actions of defense were chapeautées by the Organization of the treaty of the North Atlantic.
German integrationFrom 1954 with 1973, the UEO played a big role by supporting the development of the co-operation in Western Europe:
- integration of FRG in the Atlantic Alliance
- re-establishment of confidence enters the countries of Western Europe, in particular as regards control of the armaments
- payment of the problem of the the Saar
- dialog between the States founders of the European Community (EC) and the United Kingdom.
First deactivationAfter the accession of the United Kingdom at the EC in 1973, the UEO knew a progressive deceleration of its activities. Indeed, OEEC and the the Council of Europe adapted competences of the UEO in the fields economic, social and cultural.
Starts again of the common defense policyThe “declaration of Rome”, dated from the October 27th 1984 mark the process of revival of the UEO. In the number of the formulated objectives appeared the definition of an identity of European safety and the progressive harmonization of the defense policies of the Member States.
In the years 1990, parallel to European construction, the majority of the functions and missions of the UEO were gradually to be begun again by the European Union.
EngagementsThe Member States of the European Union which accepted the invitation to be adhered to UEO are engaged:
- to be respected, in accordance with the principles and with the values to which adhere all the Member States of the UEO, the Traité of Brussels, its protocols and texts associated, and the agreements concluded by the Member States under the terms of the provisions of known as Traité,
- to take note by approving them of the agreements, decisions and payments adopted in accordance with the provisions of known as Traité, and the Declarations adopted from that of Rome of October 27th 1984,
- to develop the UEO as a component of defense of the European Union and like means of reinforcing the European pillar of the Atlantic Alliance, in accordance with the commitment entered into on December 10th 1991 in Declaration on the role of the UEO and its relationships with the European Union and the Atlantic Alliance, united with the Treaty on the European Union
- to accept in its entirety the content of part III of the Declaration of Petersberg which will form an element of the Protocol of adhesion.
Transfer of competence towards the European UnionThe majority of its functions are in way to be transferred to the European Union.
The Assemblée of the Western European Union is made up of the delegations of the Member States of the parliamentary Assemblée of the Council of Europe. Dubious of the maintenance of its future existence with the disappearance of the UEO, it made pressure to be recognized like the “European Assembly of safety and defense”.
Here a summary of the principal events reflecting integration partial of the UEO to the foreign Politics and common safety of the EU:
the November 20th, 1999, Javier Solana, which is the High representative for the Foreign Common Policy and of Safety of the EU, was appointed General secretary of the UEO. Its place with the head of the two organizations enables him to supervise the transfer of functions of the UEO to the European Union.
the Institute of the European Union for the safety studies and the satellite Center of the European Union, both benches to function within the framework of the foreign Politics and common safety of the EU, replace the Institute of the European Union of the West for the safety studies and the satellite Center of the Union of the West which had been conceived to function in relation to the UEO.
Fusion supplements was planned for 2000 but in 2007, the UEO always exists. The opinions are divided as for becoming to it UEO: if the book of the University of New York, “Defending Europe”, considers “the rebirth of the UEO rather” than its disappearance, André Dumoulin could speak about a twilight UEO.
The UEO comprises 10 observant Member States, 6 associated members, 5 members and 7 States associated partners. They are listed as follows:
Member States: (treaty of Brussels modified - 1954)
All these States are at the same time members of the European Union and NATO.
- the United Kingdom
- Portugal (1990)
- Spain (1990)
- Greece (1995)
The statute of associated member was created to include the States which were members of NATO but who were not members of the Union. Since, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary joined the Union.
All the observant States of the UEO are members of the European Union but not NATO except for Denmark which is member of the two organizations but who did not adhere to the UEO as it was envisaged after its first negative referendum on the Treaty of Maastricht. Denmark had indeed obtained at the time of the exemptions, in particular as regards European defense before the Danes do not decide this time positively for the treaty.
Country associated partners: (Kirchberg (Luxembourg) - 1994)
They all are of the Member States of the European Union and NATO.
- European European Union
- Political of safety and defense
- List of international alliances of the Cold war
- Parliament of the Western European Union
- UEO/WEU - Official site of the UEO
- Official site of the parliamentary assembly of the UEO
- interactive Chart of the Western European Union European NAvigator
- Evolution of the operational dimension of the UEO: presentation of the concept foreign Eurocorps-Legion with the European Parliament in June 2003
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