For film of Manual Pear tree, to see Western (film) .
The western is a cinematographic Genre whose action is almost always in North America at the time of the Conquête of the West. It is located in the register of the historical film, although it belongs to the field of the Fiction.
With the cinemaAppeared as of the first years of the silent film, the western, kind primarily related to the American cinema, its apogee between the Années 1930 knows and the Années 1960, where the very great majority of them were produced. If many westerns are then entrusted to realizers of “series B” (Budd Boetticher, Ray Enright, Samuel Fuller…), several great names of the history of the cinema are illustrated there: Robert Aldrich, Michael Curtiz, Cecil Blount Of Thousand, Edward Dmytryk, John Ford, Howard Hawks, Fritz Lang, Anthony Mann, Nicholas Ray, King Vidor, Raoul Walsh, William Wellman…, giving to the kind its noble letters.
In the years 1960, the kind loses speed in the United States, the great productions, in spite of increasingly important budgets, not managing to stop the decline. The revival of the western comes then paradoxically from Europe, with the Italian realizer Sergio Leone which insufflates a new youth to him with what will become the Western spaghetti. Making the synthesis of multiple influences - the caricatural gangsters come straight of the American series B, such as for example Seven men to cut down Budd Boetticher, the dramatizing of the situations carries the mark of films of Akira Kurosawa, Sergio Leone plundering the scenario of Yojimbo to carry out one of its first films: For a handle of dollars (1964), without mentioning it with the credits, which started a mini-scandal with the Cannes festival - the Italian realizer establishes the codes and uses of this subcategory by carrying out some of best films of the kind, soon canted in multiple quickly forgotten productions. The “western spaghetti” divides the spectators, between those which rent the comic one squeaking, and the zealoies of the American western for which it is only one poor parody.
Other European productions (in Spain, in Czechoslovakia, in France even where one saw Fernandel with horse) show the universality of the western.
In the United States, more recently, realizers like Clint Eastwood or Sam Peckinpah, carried out westerns known as “twilight”, where heroism Manichean of the first cow-boys yielded the place to ambivalent characters, who free themselves without difficulty from the thin border between the good and the evil. The last great successes of the kind, Pat Garrett and Billy Kid of Sam Peckinpah in 1973 and Pitiless of Clint Eastwood in 1992, paradoxically draw up an acknowledgment of failure and dead end of the western.
Several actors knew glory or quite simply launched their career thanks to the western. One can quote among them Gary Cooper, Henry Fonda, John Wayne, James Stewart, Randolph Scott, Clint Eastwood or Kevin Costner. Some, like Karl Malden or Lee Marvin incarnated there successfully of sordid villains.
One often reproaches the western for propagating a white vision of America. In films of the first decades, indeed, the Amerindians are generally represented in a caricatural way, like cruel beings and without intelligence whose good Cow-boy must get rid. By its Manicheism, the kind was used a long time as justification with the Génocide of the Indians of America. It acts, to some extent, of a Generally accepted idea because, since 1925 with the Race which dies ( The Vanishing American ), of George B. Seitz, the Indians are shown like victims of the Conquest of the West. Will follow, in the years 1950, several westerns which attempt to rehabilitate the Indians or to show the difficulties of “mixed loves”: Beyond Missouri of William Wellman, the broken Arrow of Delmer Daves and the Door of the devil of Anthony Mann, all left in 1950, are the film precursors which prove gradually increasingly committed in favor of the Indians, as Last hunting of Richard Brooks (1955), Cheyennes of John Ford in 1964, blue Soldat of James Nelson in 1970, Little Big Man of Arthur PEN, until Dance with the wolves of Kevin Costner in 1990. These films carry also the mark of a Panthéisme sometimes naive, but often lyric and inspired ( Jeremiah Johnson of Sydney Pollack, 1972), which is also one of the elements founders of the myth, that of difficult osmosis between the man and nature ( the Prisoner with the clear eyes , of Howard Hawks, 1952).
The apparent Manicheism is often the articulation of the action (the good Shérif against the gangsters, the farmers against the stockbreeders, people of the city against those of the vintage, the man of law against the véreux sheriff, the army against the civilians, etc), but it allows of this fact of touching with the universality of the situations, which contributed to popularize the kind beyond its territory of origin. So certain actors (Gary Cooper, Henry Founded, John Wayne) almost systematically incarnate the panoply of the righter of wrongs, well quickly of other actors will endorse a more ambiguous costume, like Richard Widmark, Kirk Douglas or Joel McCrea. Divided between fascination and repulsion, the western also puts in scene violence in an ambivalent way, as underline it the sadism of Wilson (Jack Palance in the Man of the lost valleys and more still the fetishistic report/ratio with the weapons and to be able to them which the protagonists maintain Warlock ( the Man with the gold Colts ) of Edward Dmytryk (1959).
The system of the western rests primarily on the American concept of frontier that the French word border translates imperfectly (the line-border corresponds to boundary whereas the frontier is the limit of the ecumene, marked by the spirit pioneer and a very relative law). The Far West (western distance) is regarded as a ground arid, hostile, where the law did not succeed in yet being essential. These ideas, constitutive of the western, were often re-used in addition with the cinema, often in police film ( Assaut of John Carpenter is the Remake of Rio Bravo of Howard Hawks), or science fiction ( Outland takes again the screen of the Train will whistle three times ), that is to say straightforwardly on a series scale such as Star Trek .
Lastly, it is necessary to note the great permeability of the western for the other kinds of the cinema. There are thus contemporary westerns ( a man passed of John Sturges or Seuls is untamed the of David Miller), of the westerns in the shape of musical comedies ( the Village fair of the West of Joshua Logan), of the comic westerns ( Go West with the Marx Brothers) or close to the Black film: the Girl of the desert ( Colorado Territory , 1949) of Raoul Walsh is the remake of the Great escape ( High sierra , 1949) from the same realizer, one of traditional of the kind with Humphrey Bogart. For the Hollywood realizers, the western constituted a required passage, as Fritz Lang pointed out it, and even for the actors, some not hesitating to pass behind the camera, like Marlon Brando with Revenge with the two faces (“One-Eyed Jacks”, 1961), John Wayne with Alamo (1960) and, of course, Clint Eastwood.
Origins and mythLast of Mohicans of Fenimore Cooper with the novels of Gustave Aimard or Karl May, the western has initially literary origins. It also draws from the history of America itself, glorifiant the epopee of the pioneers or evoking painful the American Civil War, without neglecting the Indian Guerres. Especially, the western mythifie certain characters who it inserts in the legend: Jesse James, Billy the Kid, Calamity Jane, Wild Bill Hickock, and well of others. Some, as Buffalo Bill are still alive at the time when realizers as John Ford make their beginnings, thus transmitting their history and their experiment to those which will put in images West which combines legend and reality. At the end of the Man who killed Liberty Valance , a sentence summarizes the gasoline of the western: “When the legend becomes reality, print the legend! ”
Some famous westerns
The traditional ones
- 1903 : Flight of the rapid ( The Great Train Robbery ) (the first western) of Edwin S. Porter, with max Aronson.
- 1916: to save its race ( The Aryan ) of William S. Hart with William S. Hart and Bessie Coils.
- 1923: the Caravan towards the West ( The Covered Coach ) of James Cruze with Jack Warren Kerrigan and Laws Wilson.
- 1930: Billy Kid ( Billy The Kid ) of King Vidor with Johnny Mack Brown and Wallace Beery.
- 1930: the Track of the giants ( The Big trail ) of Raoul Walsh, with John Wayne.
- 1937: an adventure of Buffalo Bill ( The Plainsman ) of Cecil Blount Of Thousand, with Gary Cooper and Jean Arthur.
- 1939: the beloved Brigand Jesse James of Henry King with Tyrone Power and Henry Founded.
- 1939: the fantastic Ride ( Stagecoach ) of John Ford, with John Wayne. This film, freely inspired of Swell-of-Tallow of Guy of Maupassant, inserts the western in its maturity and launches definitively the career of John Wayne.
- 1939: Pacific Express train ( Union Pacific ) of Cecil B. of Thousand, with Barbara Stanwyck.
- 1940: the Rider of the desert ( The Westerner ) of William Wyler, with Gary Cooper and Walter Brennan. First film putting in scene the judge Roy Bean, incarnated here by most famous of the supporting roles of the western: Walter Brennan.
- 1940: the Return of Frank James ( The Return off Frank James ) of Fritz Lang, with Henry Founded and Gene Tierney.
- 1941: the fantastic Load ( They died with to their boots one ) of Raoul Walsh with Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland. Fictionalized rehabilitation of the General Custer, played with energy by Errol Flynn which crunches onions before embracing its been engaged.
- 1944: Buffalo Bill of William A. Wellman with Joel McCrea and Maureen O' Hara.
- 1946: the infernal Continuation ( My Darling Clementine ) of John Ford with Henry Founded and Linda Darnell. Regularly quoted like one of the largest westerns, this film evokes, with the manner of an ancient tragedy, the famous settling of score with OK Corral.
- 1946: Duel with the sun ( Duel in the sun ) of King Vidor, with Gregory Peck and Jennifer Jones. Mythical western with a final duel in bloody apotheosis: King Vidor, says one, would have made paint the elements of the desert in red to return it plugging more.
- 1948: the red River of Howard Hawks, with John Wayne and Montgomery Clift.
- 1949: the Girl of the desert (Colorado Territory) of Raoul Walsh, with Joel McCrea and Virginia Mayo. Remake of High Sierra , this western with the libertarian accents is one of the very great successes of the prolific Raoul Walsh.
- 1950: the broken Arrow of Delmer Daves, with James Stewart and Debra Paget.
- 1950: Winchester “73 of Anthony Mann, with James Stewart and Shelley Winters.
- 1950: Furies ( The Furies ) of Anthony Mann, with Barbara Stanwyck.
- 1951: the Angel of cursed the ( Rancho notorious ) of Fritz Lang with Marlene Dietrich and Mel To shoe.
- 1952: the Soft food ( The naked Spur ) of Anthony Mann, with James Stewart and Janet Leigh.
- 1952: the Prisoner with the clear eyes ( The Big Sky ) of Howard Hawks with Kirk Douglas, Arthur Hunnicutt and Elizabeth Threatt.
- 1952: the train will whistle three times ( High Noon ) of Fred Zinnemann With Gary Cooper and Grace Kelly. Evocation of the Maccarthysme through the course of a private sheriff of any support in a hostile city, vis-a-vis outlaws who swore to kill it, this western will divide Hollywood. In reaction, Howard Hawks will carry out Rio Bravo in order to show that a man of good will always finds of the assistance when it needs some.
- 1953: Johnny Guitar (Johnny Guitar) of Nicholas Ray with Joan Crawford and Sterling Hayden.
- 1953: the man of the lost valleys ( Shane ), of George Stevens, with Alan Ladd, Jean Arthur and Jack Palance. The myth in all its purity: Alan Ladd, dispenser of justice very of white vêtu, vis-a-vis the incarnated evil: Palance jack, unforgettable as a thread-like killer, equipped with black, methodically slipping on its gloves, smile with the lips, before drawing. Clint Eastwood made a remake in 1985 of them: Blade To wrinkle .
- 1954: the Man of the plain ( The Man from Laramie ) of Anthony Mann with James Stewart, Arthur Kennedy.
- 1954: Vera Cruz of Robert Aldrich, with Burt Lancaster and Gary Cooper. In 1954, Aldrich torpedoes the western while exploding its myths founders: the heroes are cynical, like the money, pass easily from one camp to the other. The western spaghetti will remember it.
- 1954: Four strange riders ( Silver Lode ) of Allan Dwan.
- 1954: the River without return of Otto Preminger with Marilyn Monroe and Robert Mitchum.
- 1955: the River of our loves ( The Indian fighter ) of Andre de Toth, with Kirk Douglas.
- 1956: the Captive one of the desert ( The Searchers ) of John Ford with John Wayne, Vera Miles and Natalie Wood. Often greeted like the most beautiful western of John Ford, this film is remarkable from all points of view: esthetics with the sumptuous of Monument Valley, moral decoration with the ambiguous course of a former Southerner, racist, gradually gained with the tolerance.
- 1957: Settling of score with OK Corral ( Gunfight At the O.K. Corral ) of John Sturges with Burt Lancaster, Kirk Douglas, Rhonda Fleming.
- 1957: Forty Killers ( Forty Guns ) of Samuel Fuller, with Barbara Stanwyck.
- 1957: 3:10 for Yuma (3: 10 To Yuma ) of Delmer Daves, with Glenn Ford and Van Heflin.
- 1958: the Left-handed person ( The Left-Handed Gun ) of Arthur PEN, with Paul Newman and John Dehner.
- 1958: Cow-boy ( Cowboy ) of Delmer Daves, with Glenn Ford. In this film, Delmer Daves shows, without ornaments, the real life of the cow-boys. Far from the epic adventures, they accompany, in the mud and dirtiness, of the herds of cows.
- 1959: the Adventurer of the Rio Grande ( The Wonderful Country ) of Robert Parrish, with Robert Mitchum and Julie London.
- 1959: Rio Cheer of Howard Hawks with John Wayne, Dean Martin, Walter Brennan.
- 1959: the Man with the Colts of gold ( Warlock ) of Edward Dmytryk with Henry Founded, Richard Widmark, Anthony Quinn. All in this film is ambiguous: out the law becomes sheriff, the mercenary intended to make reign the order shows itself such as he is: a killer. And his/her best friend, impotent, transfers on him a homosexual love as much as his capacity to reign by the Colt.
- 1960: the Seven Mercenaries ( The Magnificent Seven ) of John Sturges with Yul Brynner, Eli Wallach, Steve McQueen. Remake successful of the the Seven Samurais of Akira Kurosawa. This western is still today one of most popular.
- 1962: the Conquest of the West ( How the West was Won ), of Henry Hathaway, John Ford and George Marshall with James Stewart, John Wayne and Henry Founded.
1975 : HTTP: /ap.over-blog.org.over-blog.org/article-10112941.html the Wild Ride ( Cock the bullet ) of Richard Brooks
- 1964 : For a handle of dollars ( Per a pugno di dollari ) of Sergio Leone with Clint Eastwood, Gian Maria Will.
- 1965: And for some dollars moreover ( Per qualche dollaro in più ) of Sergio Leone with Clint Eastwood, Lee Van Cleef, Gian Maria Will.
- 1966: the Good, the Rough one and the Gangster ( It Buono, it brutto, it cattivo, it (sic) of Sergio Leone with Clint Eastwood, Eli Wallach, Lee Van Cleef
- 1966: Django of Sergio Corbucci with Free Nero
- 1968: Great Silence ( It Large silenzio ) of Sergio Corbucci with Jean-Louis Trintignant, Klaus Kinski
- 1969: It was once in the West ( Once upon has time in the West ) of Sergio Leone with Charles Bronson, Henry Fonda, Claudia Cardinale, Jason Robards.
- 1973: My name is nobody ( names Me E nessuno ) Tonino Valerii and Sergio Leone with Henry Fonda, Terence Hill
- 1954 : Vera Cruz of Robert Aldrich, with Gary Cooper, Burt Lancaster. The cynicism and the ambivalence of many twilight westerns as their cousins “spaghetti” come mainly from this film where Burt Lancaster raise a smile of a whiteness as perfect as its heart is black.
- 1957: Last hunting (The Last hunt) of Richard Brooks with Robert Taylor, Stewart Granger and Debra Paget.
- 1961: the Man who killed Liberty Valance of John Ford, with John Wayne, James Stewart, Lee Marvin. When a lawyer (James Stewart) arrives in the west, it is there to bring teaching, the law and civilization, in spite of the reserves of the hero of the west (John Wayne).
- 1969: the wild Horde ( The wild bunch ) of Sam Peckinpah with William Holden, Robert Ryan, Warren Oates, Ernest Borgnine. The congenital violence of America and distress of those which carry it vis-a-vis the irruption of the modernity (the car) which signs the irremediable end of the cow-boys.
- 1970: Little Big Man of Arthur PEN with Dustin Hoffman and Faye Dunaway.
- 1971: John McCabe ( McCabe & Mrs. Miller ) of Robert Altman with Warren Beatty, Julie Christie. Poor adventurers (card players, mackerels…) who reverse the epopee fordienne.
- 1973: Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid of Sam Peckinpah with Kris Kristofferson, Bob Dylan, James Coburn. When a former brigand, Pat Garrett (James Coburn) lines up side of the law and must kill his old friend Billy the Kid (Kris Kristofferson), to defend the interests of the landowners.
- 1976: Josey Wales outlaw , of and with Clint Eastwood.
- 1980: the Door of the paradise ( Heaven' S spoils ) Michael Cimino, with Kris Kristofferson and Isabelle Huppert. A film which shows how America constituted itself of violence and racism under emergent bottom of class struggle.
- 1992: Pitiless ( Unforgiven ) of and with Clint Eastwood. An old ace of the revolver chose to withdraw and flee the violence and the alcoholism, which however end up catching up with it, not without underlining its old age and its ringardise.
Attempts at return
- 1985 : Silverado of Lawrence Kasdan with Kevin Costner, Kevin Kline, Scott Glenn, Danny Glover, Jeff Goldblum, Rosanna Arquette.
- 1993 : Tombstone of George P. Cosmatos with Kurt Russell, Val Kilmer, Charlton Heston.
- 1994 : Wyatt Earp of Lawrence Kasdan with Kevin Costner, Dennis Quaid, Gene Hackman, remake of Tombstone .
- 1995 : Dead Man of Jim Jarmusch with Johnny Depp
- 1995: Dead or sharp ( The Quick and the Dead ) with Sharon Stone and Leonardo DiCaprio
- 2003: Wild West ( Open Arranges ) with Robert Duval, Kevin Costner, Annette Bening and Michael Gambon.
- 2004 : Return to Cold Mountain of Anthony Minghella with Jude Law, Nicole Kidman and Renee Zellweger.
- 2007 : the assassination of Jesse James by the coward Robert Ford, of Andrew Dominik, with Brad Pitt and Casey Affleck
CartoonsOne counts also many cartoons whose action is at the same time and who can thus refer to the western kind. It should be noted that number of them are inspired directly by westerns which are former for them:
- the series Lucky Luke, by Morris. Conceived like a parody, the series of Lucky Luke caricatures to the extreme certain films or characters. Thus the Judge Roy Bean is already present in the Rider of the desert ( The Westerner ) of William Wyler (1940) besides where one sees whiskey awkwardly poured to dissolve the metal of a bar (frequent gag in Morris). By going up the Mississippi takes as a starting point the film of John Ford Steamboat Round the Bend (1935), just like Of the Barbed wires in the meadow prolongs the screen of the Man who does not have a star ( Man without has star ) King Vidor (1954); Dalton City takes up the idea of a city held by outlaws for outlaws present in Kansas on fire of Ray Enright (1950). In Diligence , the dissimulating preacher of the revolvers in his bible must much with the Robert Mitchum of Five card stud (Henry Hathaway, 1968). The most famous recovery is that of Phil Defer where the killer incarnated by Jack Palance in Shane is almost more resembling that the original.
- the series Comanche, by Hermann and Greg;
- the series Buddy Longway, by Derib, which posts an obvious relationship with Jeremiah Johnson;
- volume 1 of the series Lapinot, Blacktown , by Lewis Trondheim;
- the series Blueberry, by Jean-Michel Charlier and Jean Giraud. At the commencement of the series, the inspiration of the Hollywood western is visible, of the character of Quanah who resembles extremely the solitary Eagle ( Drumbeat ) incarnated by Charles Bronson in film of Delmer Daves (1954) until the scenarios of Rio Bravo and of the infernal Continuation which, skilfully mixed, underlies the Man with money star . The series devoted to the iron horse takes as a starting point Seul against all of Jesse Hibbs ( Rails into Laramie , 1954), while that which culminates with Ballade for a coffin compiles influences as various as John Sturges ( the Treasury of hung - The Law and Jack Wade , 1958), Sam Peckinpah ( Major Dundee , the wild Horde ) and… the western spaghetti;
- the series Bouncer, by Alejandro Jodorowsky and François Boucq;
- the series Hiram Lowatt & Placido, by Christophe Blain and David B.;
- blue Tunics, by Lambil & Raoul Cauvin;
- Chinaman, by Serge To tighten and Olivier Taduc.
- Giacomo Puccini composed a opera-western: Fanciulla del West .
- Western is in addition a Road movie French of Manuel Pear tree left in 1997.
|Random links:||Maonan (language) | Equip with Paraguay of Rugby to XV | Laurent Baluc-Rittener | John Camoletti | List burgomasters of the Area of Brussels-Capital | Sumbawa|