War of Cimbres
Towards 120 av. J. - C., on the people of the north of Europe, the Cimbres, accompanied by the Teutons and Ambrons, probably pushed by the famine, decide to migrate towards the south. With these Germanic or supposed people such, was added, during this " migration" , of many tribes of various origins, for example Celtic. To nourish itself in way, they make plunderings, fight and convince or force of another people to follow them. It is estimated that 100.000 to 300.000 people take the road of the South, attracted by hospital regions, during this episode called the Guerre of Cimbres. The balance of the forces is upset, Rome estimates that it must intervene to preserve its commercial interests and its safety.
First Roman defeatsAfter several battles with the Boïens and other Celtic tribes, they appear in 113 av. J. - C. in Norique, territory of the Taurisci, combined of Rome. It is estimated that during this period, the migrants, rather of Germanic origin, absorbed many Celtic groups. On the request of the Roman Consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, having a presentiment of the defeat of Taurisci, Rome decides to react. It is the first confrontation between Romains and German.
The Romans require that Cimbres leave Norique, carry out a show of force, then the Carbo consul takes a defensive position. Cimbres obtempèrent, but those discover an ambush set-up by the Romans, and decide to attack them. The Bataille of Norée was bloody and the completely destroyed legions sent. It is the first time since the Second Punic War which the Roman legions undergo a serious defeat. This one was going to have important consequences for the evolution of the army.
Whereas Italy their is opened, Cimbres and their allies choose to cross the the Alps and to invade Gaulle. In 109 av. J. - C., they beat the consul Marcus Junius Silanus in Narbonnaise, then another Roman army near Burdigala (Bordeaux) ordered by Caius Cassius Longinus Ravalla, which is killed. In 107 av. J. - C., Rome again is beaten, this time by Tigurins, traditional Helvètes enemy of Rome rejoined in Cimbres since their passage of the Alps, with the Bataille of Agen.
In 105 av. J. - C., they gain a great victory over the Romans with Arausio (Orange) and enter to Spain from where they are expelled by the Celtibères.
defeats disappearancesAfter 7 years of tribulations, Teutons and Ambrones separate from Cimbres.
Teutons and AmbronesMarius succeeds in beating the latter at the time of the battles of Aix-en-Provence (Aquæ Sextiæ) in 102 av. J. - C.. The king of Teutons Teutobod is made there prisoner. It is told that the captive women commit suicide in mass.
CimbresIn 101 av. J. - C., Cimbres arrive to Italy and find vis-a-vis 10 Roman legions directed by Marius, the winner of Teutons. With the Battle of Vercellae, the troops cimbres are decimated, their king Boiorix dies there; according to the rumor the last survivors (women and children included) commit suicide rather than to become slaves. Other authors suppose that they perhaps went to remain as a Gaulle, ground hospital than their areas of origin.
InterpretationsIt is conceivable that a Roman victory in singular combat (such as usually practiced by the Germanic people) caused the capitulation of the entire group. Lastly, consequently where it is from now on sure that in fact the famines and the unfavourable climate pushed these people to emigrate (thanks to the contents of the stomach of " momies" preserved in the peat, like with their DNA, it was possible to reconstitute the food mode of Cimbres, like their deficiencies, which betray very many famines, particularly during the winters), we could put forth the assumption that those took the risk to be subjected with a simple aim of remaining as a Gaulle.
ConsequencesThe Guerre of Cimbres and the Guerre of Jugurtha had a particular influence, as well on the career of Marius as on the important reforms of the institutions and the reforms of the armed as it introduced. It is the beginning of the competition between Marius and Sylla, which was going to lead to the civil Great War of -88 with -87.
Actually, following these victories, Rome will collect these overcome tribes more slaves than one should not any to him. This mass of labor will be in any case one of the explanatory factors of many disorders and servile revolts, of which most known will be that carried out by legendary the Spartacus.
Some villages of the north of Italy are known to have been of Cimbres ascent.
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