Würzburg (in German Würzburg ) is a town of Germany, in Bavaria, on the Main, septentrional starting point of the Romantic Route. Chief town of district and seat of one évêché, it counts more than 100.000 inhabitants. The Résidence of Würzburg is classified since 1981 with the World heritage of humanity of UNESCO
Würzburg is on two banks of the Main, in its average valley. The city is surmounted in the west by the fortress of Marienberg (Sainte-Marie Mount).
The city is divided into 13 urban sectors and 25 districts.
- 742 : foundation of évêché of Würzburg was founded and allotted to Burchard via Boniface
- 1030: the bishop becomes lord of the city. This event is celebrated by the construction of a new cathedral between 1040 and 1188.
- 1156: marriage of Frederic Barberousse and Beatrice of Burgundy
- 1402: foundation of the University
- 1476: Heresy of Hans Böhm, which perishes on roughing-hew it
- 1573 - 1617: regulate of the Prince-bishop Jules Echter de Mespelbrunn
- 1631: Würzburg is conquered by Gustave II Adolphe of Sweden.
- 1720 - 1744: contruction of the Residence
- 1814: the city becomes Bavarian, seat of administrative unit and district
- 1817: Würzburg becomes chief town of the Low-Franconie
- 1895: Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovers the X-rays
- During the First World War, a principal camp of captive S is established there.
- March 16th 1945: the city is severely bombarded by the Royal Air Force. In 20 minutes, 5000 people lose the life and more 90 % of the buildings of the downtown area are then destroyed.
- 2004 : the city celebrates its thirteen centuries of existence
- the Residence: it is Jean Philippe François de Schœnborn, prince enthusiast of magnificence, which made constuire the Residence as from 1720. It is one of the architectural achievements most ambitious of Germany baroque. The collaboration of the large European artists of the time, placed under the direction of the architect Balthasar Neumann, gave rise to “Würzburger Rokoko”, most exuberant of the alternatives of the style European Rococo. Interior decoration was carried out mainly under Charles Philippe de Greiffenclau, with in particular Jean Baptiste Tiépolo.
- Hofkirche (church of court): the vault of the residence or Hofkirche constitutes a splendid example of art Baroque religious of the XVIIIe century. It emphasizes all the virtuosity of Balthasar Neumann which conceived here an extremely complex structure with five oval cupolas. Sumptuous decoration is due to several artists of reputation: Luc de Hildebrandt, Antonio Bossi (stucco work and figures in Stucco), Jean Baptist Tiépolo.
- the fortress of Marienberg ( Mount Sainte-Marie ): the construction of the castle-extremely begins in 1201 on a site occupied since the age from iron. It becomes the residence of the prince-bishops of 1253 to 1719. It is transformed in XVIe century and XVIIe century.
- the old bridge on the Hand: it is one of the monument-symbols of Würzburg. Built in 1133, this picturesque bridge is decorated important saints and characters. He strongly points out the Pont Charles of Prague.
- the Town hall: the " Rathaus" is a building formed d" distinct buildings. The tower of the count Eckard is of origin Romance but altered at the 15th century. “Boter Bau” (red house) was associated to him in 1659. The convent of the Carmelite nuns built in 1712 but very restored at the 19th century was attached to the town hall at that time.
- the cathedral: the " Dom" Saint-Kilien (Saint-Kilian Cathedral of Würzburg) is the fourth Romance sanctuary of Germany by his dimensions. Started about 1040, its construction was completed in 1187. At the beginning of the 18th century, the interior was richly decorated with stuccos. The unit, very tested during the Second world war, was restored. The interior carries the mark of several styles, of the novel at the time contemporary. One can quote in particular the sculptures of Tilman Riemenschneider in the right-sided of the transept and the superb pulpit carved by Michael Kern (1609).
- Neumunster: the " Neumünsterkirche" , founded at the 12th century, was rebuilt at the beginning of the 12th century in a transition style romano-Gothic. At the beginning of the 18th century, the church was entirely altered in the taste baroque. One allots this beautiful realization to Jean Dientzenhofer. The beauty of the building lies especially in its red sandstone frontage equipped with a gate to which climbs to double flight
- the Sainte-Marie church: this fine Gothic church-market was built between 1377 and 1479 with the site of the old Jewish district destroyed after an epidemic of Peste. It preserved a gate and a tower of origin. One finds there works of Tilman Riemenschneider.
- Kaeppele (Chapellette): located at the top of a way of cross bordered of statues of Jean Pierre Wagner (1767), Kaeppele is charming a small church of pilgrimage Rococo, with the cupolas in bulbs. Balthasar Neumann drew the plans of them. The frescos which decorate the central vault are of Matthaeus Gunther, the Stuc S of Joseph Antoine Feuchtmayer
- the house of the falcon (1752) rises close to the Sainte-Marie church shows a superb frontage Rococo restored. The building shelters the tourist office of the city.
- Midsummer's Day im Haug: chief of work of the Italian architect Antonio Petrini, this collegial was the first monument baroque set up in Franconie (1670). The two turns which flank its high frontage and the powerful cupola which rises with transept crossing confer on the building its majesty. A Crucifixion by the Tintoret (1583) surmounts the Master furnace bridge.
- Juliusspital: this hospital was founded in 1576 by the prince-bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn " for the poor ones and malades". It is still in activity. The current buildings (XVIIe century) were largely restored after the war. Today still, the hospital draws its resource from a hundred hectares of vineyards which it has since XVIe century.
- Alter Kranen or " old woman grue" is established on Right Bank of the Hand in front of old extremely built by Frans Neumann, the son of Balthasar.
Gallery of images
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