See also: Volley ball (homonymy)
The volley ball is a collective Sport, in which two teams of six players (except in the inferiors categories, as Benjamin where one plays four players on a ground of seven meters out of seven), separated by a net, clash with a balloon on a rectangular ground. With 260 million practitioners, it is about the one of the sports most applied to the world.
OriginsVolley ball is invented the February 9th 1895 with the the United States by a professor of physical education of a YMCA, with Holyoke in the Massachusetts, William G. Morgan, in order to occupy the athletes during the winter. Its creation is also a reaction to recent the Basket-ball, too judged violent one (because of the contacts). The volleyball is appropriate thus for younger people. Its name comes from the English verb “to volleyball” which means “to make fly (the ball)”, principal goal of the play. In the beginning, the name was “mintonette” , but it did not keep it a long time.
He opposes at the origin nine players in each team who can have master keys as many as they want it. The first final rules go back to 1897. This sport remains however a sport of YMCA and schools. It does not become really a university sport. The first national championship in the east United States besides a championship organized by the American association of the YMCA. It takes place with New York in 1922.
An international federation of French origin, the International federation of Volley ball (FIVB), founded in 1947, defines the rules of the game. The first world championships took place in 1952. Volley ball is an Olympic discipline since 1964; its more estival version, the Beach-volleyball is since 1996.
GroundVolley ball is generally practiced in room. The ground has a 18 meters length rectangular form by 9 meters of width. The lines of delimitation are inside the ground. A central line extends under the net over all the width from the ground and separates the two camps. A line of attack is painted on the ground in each half of ground, with 3 meters of the net, it is commonly called “line of the 3 meters” .
NetEach team occupies a half of the ground, separate half of the other by a one meter height net placed at a variable height according to the category of age of the players or players:
Two antennas (vertical bars also called “test cards”) are fixed on the net with height of the limits of the ground (the net is generally broader than this last). The balloon must pass between these antennas during the exchanges between teams at the time of the phases of play. Two white bands, coupled at the antennas, are located on the net at the vertical of the lines on side.
BalloonThe balloon of volleyball ball is more flexible and lighter than the soccer ball. It must have a circumference ranging between 65 and 67cm, a mass ranging between 260 and 280g, and a pressure between 0,30 and 0,325 kg/cm ².
Rules of the game
Position of the playersA team of volley ball is composed of six players on the ground, three fronts and three backs. The position of the players is generally indicated by a number from 1 to 6,1 being the player right back, 2 before right, 3 before center, 4 before left, 5 the left back, 6 the back centers, which gives this configuration:
This classification corresponds to the order of service at the time of the beginning of set. Item 1 is occupied by the first player to be useful. Item 2 corresponds to the player who will be useful then and so on. Each player is held to be with his position at the time of the setting concerned of the ball. On the other hand, as of the concerned ball, the players are free to move on the ground with their own way (but the back players can attack only apart from the three meters and cannot counter in the zone of attack; in fact, as soon as they are in the zone of attack they cannot return a ball on other side if the contact takes place with the ball entirely above the net).
Phases of play
The phases of play are the following ones:
- the service is carried out by the player in position 1. He is carried out since the back of the ground. The player places himself behind the basic line of the ground and striking the ball with a hand in order to make it fall down inside the unfavourable ground, the ball can touch the net. The player is authorized with launching the ball, jumping, and smasher the ball, one calls that a smashé service, increasingly widespread with high level; in all the cases, its feet must remain outside the ground at the time of the call (not to bite the basic line). The reception of the jump can be done inside the ground after the striking of the ball;
- the opposing team receives the ball, it has the right to touch it three times (against not counting as touches) before returning it in its turn on other side of the ground. A player cannot twice touch consecutively the ball (except if the first key of ball is against);
The exchange continues then until one of the two teams makes a fault. The most current faults are:
- for lack of position : not to respect the correct placement of the players at the moment when the waiter strikes the ball (example: player 1 must be behind the player into 2 and on the right of the player into 6);
- ball in : to let the ball touch the ground inside the limits of its ground;
- fault of the four keys : not to manage to turn over the ball in the opposing side in less than three keys of ball;
- ball out : to send the ball so that it touches the ground apart from the limits of the ground, or a player sends a ball which then touches the antenna (commonly called test card);
- for lack of wire : to touch the net enters the test cards with any left the body or clothing;
- for lack of penetration : to completely cross the central line (under the net) with the whole foot (or the hand or another part of the body) and to thus come into contact with the unfavourable ground;
- fault of the two keys : the same player touches the ball twice successively;
- for lack of striking of attack : a back player (position 1,5 or 6) attacks a ball higher than the net while being inside the zone of attack delimited by the line of the three meters (except if it takes his call behind the line of the 3 meters), or Libéro carries out a master key with ten fingers inside the zone of the three meters which is attacked by a player above the net;
- balloon held : the ball is touched in an inadequate way by a player (all strike them must be frank, it is interdict to catch the balloon then to start again it);
A point is then marked and equips it having marked this point gains (or preserves) the service. If this team did not have the service, the players of this team then carry out a rotation on the ground (the 1 takes the place of the 6, which takes the place of the 5, etc). The service is carried out then by the player passing from item 2 at item 1.
The part proceeds in three gaining sets of 25 points (with two points of variation), the fifth set which decides between the 2 teams is played in 15 points with 2 points of variation (one remakes a drawing lot and one changes ground with 8). There cannot be tie.
The rules of volley ball were largely altered between 1998 and 2000 and authorize from now on touch the ball with all the parts of the body: formerly, only the parts above the belt were authorized. The principle of counting of the points was modified: the sets were played in 15 points, a team marked of point only if it had the service. Lastly, a particular player was introduced: the libero, specialist in defense, which can neither attack, neither to counter nor to be useful.
Composition of a teamTo play volley ball, the player must have tennis which hold very well ankle. The majority of the more advanced players get chevillières because it is very frequent that a player is wounded there. One can classify the players of category:
The complete ones/Réceptionneurs-attackersThese two players attack with the wing (in position 4) and with the three meters. One of the two attackers will attack however in position 2 when the pointed one is itself on position 4, in phase of reception. With the back, the complete one is with the priority libéro to make the reception. NB: the players called “complete” are sometimes also those which are selected to be in opposition to the frontier runner, in the team without pointed. At this time there this player must be able to take delivery of, attack, block, be useful and especially to be able to carry out the master key when the frontier runner defends. It is what differentiates it from the traditional attacker receptionnor and the title of “complete is worth to him”.
The pointed oneAlso called “player with the technique”, this player is that placed contrary to the frontier runner. He generally attacks item of them 2 except in phase of reception when itself is on position 4 in order to avoid useless rotations. He attacks then into 4. When it is back, the pointed one is discharged from the reception in order to be able to attack with the three meters (generally item 1 of them). He is often regarded as the best attacking and the frontier runner often makes him the master key when he is in difficulty.
Pointed and complete can be gathered under name “wingers” .
ExchangesThe players in the center are those which place themselves in position 3 and 6. In item 3, the exchanges have for principal function, to attack into short (passes short and rapid of the frontier runner) or, in the case of a pretense of attack, “to fix” (to attract) unfavourable defense (against or wall) to prevent it from going to counter an attacker winger . The exchange often leaves on the back stations to leave its place to the libéro. It leaves after having been useful in position 1 and returns into 4.
Frontier runnersAccording to the tactical system set up, there are a frontier runner (system 5-1) or two frontier runners (system 4-2). In a system 5-1 (5 attackers and 1 frontier runner), the frontier runner is generally placed after the service:
- * in 2 when it is on the positions before (2, 3 or 4),
- * in 1 when it is on the back positions (1, 5 or 6).
- In a system 4-2 (4 attackers and 2 frontier runners), the two frontier runners are on opposite positions (when a frontier runner is in front of, the other is behind). The position of each frontier runner after the service functions on the same principle as with only one frontier runner.
- When the two frontier runners also attack (the frontier runner on the positions fronts attacks on master keys made by the frontier runner on the back positions) one speaks about a system in “forgery 4-2”, in " 4-2 amélioré" , or in 6-2 which makes it possible to have always 3 attackers on the stations fronts.
- * in 1 when it is on the back positions (1, 5 or 6).
The libéroThe player libéro is different from the other players. He has as a function to make receptions of service where it must excel. It remains on the bench of the players until the trainer sends it on the ground to replace one of the players back. The exchange of players in this particular case does not need to be noted by the referee. It can return only on the three positions of the back line and it is to him interdict to serve and attack the balloon when this one is entirely with the top of the high plan of the net. Moreover, if it carries out a master key (touches high) towards an attacker and that it is inside the zone of the 3 meters, the attacker can attack or pass the balloon at the adversary only if the balloon is not entirely with the top of the high plan of the wire. It can on the other hand carry out a cuff in this zone which can be attacked normally. It is the strong point of the sector reception-defense. For a traditional tactical diagram, it returns on each exchange, after their position of service, and turns on the three back positions. On the ground, it carries a shirt different from the other players of its team.
The master keyIt is the basic key. The gesture consists in touching the ball in front of oneself, above the head, with the pulp of the fingers distributed on both sides of the balloon. Contrary to what is visible, the movement of the arms is primarily used to deaden the contact with the ball, to control best and ensure the direction of the master key. The power and the range of the master key come from the supports, of thorough of the legs at the time of the contact. Let us recall that a contact prolonged with the balloon is interdict with the volleyball. It is the only collective sport having this characteristic. The master key being more precise than the cuff, it is used more and more at the time of the reception of the floating services (smashés or not).
The cuffIt is the movement used when the ball is low and/or fast (reception of service, defense on a smash). The plan of contact is carried out on the level of the interior of the front armlevers, the arms being tended, forming an angle with the bust, this angle being variable according to the distance compared to the frontier runner. The push is done on the level of the legs, while keeping the angle between the bust and the arms. The cuff is used to bring the ball to the frontier runner which suits him to make a master key.
The smash or the attackIt is the key of attack. It is about a very technical gesture, the ball being struck by the player whereas he is in suspension. There exist various types of attacks:
- the powerful attack, which seeks to force against, i.e. to prevent any recovery after this one. It can also cause the block-out, i.e. to strike the hands of the contror so as to be deviated towards the outside of the ground.
- the lobed attack, just behind against, to surprise defense;
- the attack placed, in a point where defense will be unable to take it again;
The block (against)It is a defensive movement (it is not counted among the 3 authorized keys). Its objective is to prevent the balloon from passing in its camp while making fall the balloon in the unfavourable ground. In certain tactical options, it can be “defensive” in order to preserve the balloon in its camp by facilitating the play of the defenders to connect on a phase of attack. The libéro can neither counter, nor to carry out an attempt at against (i.e. to jump at the time of against only or to several without real intention to counter). A back player cannot counter or take part in against manpower. Lastly, a service cannot be countered.
ServiceIt is the key of engagement. It is always the player item 1 of them who is useful. The waiter must be placed behind the basic line of its ground (without going above), where it wishes it in-depth, but to remain within the limits of the ground in width. It must strike the ball with a hand. Before striking, the balloon must be launched or released (it cannot be held). If the balloon touches the net, but passes in the opposing side, the service is valid. At the time of the service, the players must respect their position for rotation in progress under penalty of fault. Except for waiter, all the players must be entirely inside the ground at the time of the service: they should not touch the ground outside the lines. Once the struck ball, the players can leave the ground and change station (players at items 1,5 and players at items 2,3 and 4 between them).
There exist several service types:
Service of the beginners, commonly called “service spoon”It consists to take the balloon of the left hand (for a droitier), of tender this arm ahead with height it basin, to launch the balloon in height slightly, and to strike it by lower part with the right hand to make it “fly” ahead.
Floating serviceThis service type does not require the use of the legs. The player launches his ball in height and striking by using to it epic characteristic of the attack, without however folding back his hand completely. The gesture is stopped at the exact moment of the impact between balloon and firm hand. The ball will follow a floating trajectory which makes dubious the precise place where the ball is judicious touch the ground. This undulation thus puts the receptionnor in difficulty.
Smashé serviceSmashé is most frequently the service type practiced by the professionals. This service requires him to it use of the lower extremities. With this intention, the player must place himself a little after the limit of the ground, launch very high his balloon and carry out a small race of dash to strike his ball at the time of the suspension. This very strong service type requires a position of perfect reception, nevertheless it is rather simple to take delivery of because the revolving ball and very rapid rebound on the arms of the receptionnor, who should not thus make efforts to bring back it in the air.
Floating smashé serviceThis service is very much used by the professional female ones, but also more and more by the masculines. It consists in taking a race of dash (less large than for smashé). However, contrary to smashé, it is only once the player moving which it launches his balloon (much less higher than for one smashé), and instead of striking it with the manner of an attack, it opera hat tight its ball for not which it turns. So the reception requires an absolute mobility of the legs…
Sequences of play
Traditional sequenceAfter the unfavourable service, the receptionnor sends the ball to the frontier runner, which distributes to the one of its attackers which smashe in order to mark the point. Unfavourable side, the players with the net try to block the attacker. The players not making action of block place themselves in defense in the zones not - glazes by against.
CombinationsIn order to surprise the opposing team, various tactics or combinations can be developed. There is a great number which corresponds to a clean sign according to the club. In the combinations one can quote:
the short one (before and back): it is a hardly raised ball of one meter by the frontier runner, to play with the exchange, in order to fix the unfavourable block. The exchange is already in the air when the frontier runner makes the master key (the goal is to fix the unfavourable exchange, in order to have one blocker with the wings)
- shifted: an alternative of fixing, it is to prevent its exchange which the short one will be pushed on its left shoulder in order to release it from against.
- the half one: it is a master key in the center whose timing must be that the attacking player starts his race at the time or the frontier runner carries out its master key.
- the “shot” (or tended): accelerated ball, allowing the exchange to attack with 2 meters of the frontier runner (the goal is to surprise the unfavourable exchange, in order to put the attacker in a favorable position).
- the “cross”, the goal is to make accept the unfavourable blocker that it is short, but the ball is raised definitely, and it is a winger who attacks (the unfavourable exchange having jumped for the exchange, it has there no more block); the master key for a combination cross is called a “carrot”.
- the alternatives advanced of the cross are the interval and the extervalle. The interval is when the exchange goes up in tended and that a winger goes up into half between the frontier runner and the exchange. The extervalle when the exchange goes up or into short or in is tended and that the winger goes up behind him and either between the frontier runner and the exchange.
- the “six” (or pipe ), attacks coming from the back player centers (in place 6)
- “U” it is by convention a master key which is always done in the center before ground, whatever the quality of the reception, that surprises the adversary because in normal weather the exchange follows the frontier runner.
- the second hand, it is an attack made on the second key (and thus by the frontier runner, also called “kuk”, “kik”, “do-it-yourselfing”)
- the Volley-ball of beach is played on a ground whose ground is covered with brown sand . The teams are made up only of three players and the rules are almost identical to traditional volley ball;
- the Beach-volleyball is played with trained teams of only two players, with rules differing largely from traditional volley ball;
- it or Walley-ball is played four players per team or less, on a ground of squash or racketball, and the rebounds on the side walls of the ground are allowed (from where the name, of wall , wall);
- the Volley-ball (handisport) is played in wheelchair;
- a version very spectacular and played exclusively foot, it, was invented in 1963 with the Brésil.
- Volley ball in the world
- Volley ball (handisport)
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