The people who enter this virtual economic system make it by entertainment rather than by need. However, the virtual world joining the real-world, certain people created true parallel economies, converting the goods piled up in the virtual one, in quite real currency.
A virtual economy under developmentIf the Roleplays on line massively multijouor, commonly called MMORPG, are miniature companies which would deserve a sociological study, their economic side appears strongly interesting.
Although they are only plays, more and more of players go in these persistent worlds. It results from this obviously an economy. The examples simplest to implement to illustrate this matter are the plays:
These plays have an economy which can appear simplistic, but appears complex, full with swindle, of lobbies, cheaters.
Bases of an economyWhen the play is launched, the developers put structures places from there to facilitate the emergence of an economic system, i.e. means of producing, of exchanging and of consuming goods.
HuntingThe players obtain resources driving out the monsters (called mobs ) which populate the grounds of the play. These monsters are Personnages not-player (PNJ) which are there only to fight the players, allowing them to gain experiment, money, and objects more or less invaluable. It is the most common means to earn money.
The merchants not-playerOfficial merchants not-players (i.e. characters managed by the play) are present, primarily in the cities. They make it possible to the players to buy objects (as weapons, armours, potions…) and to sell those for which they do not have no need. These characters form a kind of official economy.
The exchange between playersThere exists different systems from exchange in the MMO (more or month likely to lead to frauds), the principal ones are those implemented by World off Warcraft ; Lineage II ; EVE Online .
In the system of World off Warcraft , the players have access to named places the Saleroom. This hotel is the equivalent of a market, accommodating the players eager to sell or buy, with a system of bidding. These exchanges are done only between players, and thus often apart from any control by the play.
In Lineage II , the exchange between players is not done “via” a centralizing system of the offer and request (in other words a purse of exchange). The player who wants to buy must go in the big cities, because protected from the conflicts. The cities are thus of true centers sale and of purchase. The characters who seek a partner for negociations sat and a poster with the top of their head praises their products.
In EVE online , the system of trade is done according to the offer with the request, it is possible to sell or buy a product while mooring on a station. Each solar system has a separate market of the others; what pushes certain tradesman to travel on long distances (between various solar systems) to be able to sell their goods at a price higher than it one bought before. There exists also a black-market called " Escrow".
The creation of objectsCertain categories of characters, like the Dwarves in Lineage II , can manufacture (one says also crafter ) objects which they can resell. These characters use in this case their skill (French capacity) to transform raw materials into object. These raw materials can generally be obtained on the monsters, but can also result from searches for the rarest objects. This creation can sometimes also carry out to swindle, insofar as it is not easily possible to quantify the price of materials necessary to manufacture.
Financial transactions in the MMOGAugust 1st
Bond between virtual economies and real economy
A report on Arte concerning the addiction in MMORPGs showed a not very scrupulous employer in South Korea which exploited vagrants by leading them to spend time in front of the online game L2, to gain artefacts which were then resold through the network with regular players n the other hand fiduciary.
The vagrants were placed on mattresses when they were not connected.
LexiconTo approach this article peacefully, it is necessary to control the crossbred language of Anglicisms of the players:
- MMORPG : Massively MultiPlayer Online Role Play Range, or in French Roleplay Massively multijouor in Line
- World Off Warcraft: The MMO more universally played. Usually shortened in WoW.
- Lineage II: The MMO more played in Asia. Usually shortened in L2.
- PNJ : Character not player.
- Mobs: Abbreviation of the English word , indicates the monsters which populate the universes of these plays.
- Crafter: English word , which means art in the artisanal direction, creation. The characters having this aptitude can create objects starting from raw materials, likely to be resold.
Some virtual currencies
- Adenas, the currency of Lineage II
- ISK, the currency of Eve Online
- Gold coins (or Po), the currency of World off Warcraft
- Online game massively multijouor
- Farming or Farmer
- Virtual world
Guide on the trade for EVE Online
- Castronova, Edward. " Virtual Worlds: In First-Hand Account off Market and Society one the Cyberian Frontier, " '' CESifo Working Paper No 618 '', December 2001.
- Castronova, Edward. " One Virtual Economies, " '' CESifo Working Paper Series No 752 '', July 2002.
- Castronova, Edward. " The Price off “Man” and “Woman”: In Hedonic Pricing Model off Attributes Misadventure in has Synthethic World, " '' CESifo Working Paper Series No 957 '', June 2003.
Fairfield, Joshua, " Virtual Property" . Boston University Law Review, vol. 85,2005 * Pitfalls off Virtual Property - a philosophical study on the concept of the virtual property .
The Punctured Magic Circle - the point of view of a range designer on the virtual economies.
"Virtual Island Salts For $26,500". - A virtual island is sold 265000 dollars on Project Entropia - Zonk (Slashdot), 2004.
- MyTwoPecs.com - site monitoring the virtual economy off Project Entropia
- Internet Present Gambling Regulation has and Future - Mark Methenitis' Essay for Texas Tech University School off Law detailing Internet gambling and economies within MMORPG' S and the problems that will Be faced in the future.
- Another MMORPG trading model than classical eBay - Why couldn' T the MMORPG virtual market Be like well known stock exchange models?
- Eye One MOGS - Price Comparison for the Virtual Commodities Secondary Market
- Real Money and the Virtual Economy - Another look At Real Money Trade in MMORPGs.
'' Guild wars virtual economy beg '' - one of the many companies negotiating of the currencies and the virtual objects, of various plays, against truths dollars.
- World' S World '' The Virtual Economy Range '' - a play on the worldwide economy
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