Vineyard of Bordeaux
The Vin S of Bordeaux represent multiple gustatory nuances due not only to the Cépage S cultivated but especially to the influence of the Terroir S. the Vignoble of Bordeaux produced of the red wines, dry or liqueur-like white wines; starting from red type of vines, one also vinifies rosy wines.
The wines are elaborate starting from following type of vines of Vigne:
- Cabernet-franc, Cabernet-sauvignon, Merlot for the red wines, to which are added the Petit verdot, the Malbec, the Carménère and the Côt;
- Sauvignon, Sémillon and Muscadelle for the white wines, to which are added the white Ugni, the Colombard and the white Merlot.
HistoryThe Vigne would be present in the area of Bordeaux since the Antiquité: the notable ones of Burdigala (Bordeaux) would have decided to create their own vineyard because of the high price of the wines coming from Narbonne and Italy, imported by the Roman traders.
At the 12th century, the Aquitaine becomes a Duché English following the remarriage of Aliénor of Aquitaine with Henri Plantagenêt, count of Anjou and king of England under the name of Henri II. The viticultural trade develops starting from the area of Serious.
At the 13th century, the catch of La Rochelle, exporting port of the wines of Bordeaux, by the king of France transforms Bordeaux into privileged exporting port of the wines bound for the English market. The king of England then grants important special fiscal advantages to the traders of Bordeaux. The latter are then put to plant vine with prolifically. The vineyard extends towards the Libournais. At the time, the wine, obtained by a mixture of grape juices black and white grapes, was clear, from where its name of Claret . For the 14th century the new Pope Clement V, was used the wine of his Low register area, of Avignon to Oxford.
It is only as from the 16th century that wine exploitations close to those to today appear, with the vines planted in furrows.
As from the 17th century, the arrival of the business men Dutch transforms the commercial methods. Indeed, those diffuse in Europe drinks up to now unknown such as the Chocolat, the Café or the The, as well as other alcoholic drinks (strong Bière S, Gin). Moreover, the Dutchmen encourage the production of wines more to their taste like soft white wines and black wines (in fact, red wines such as we know them today) not only in the Of Bordeaux one, but also with Cahors and in the Iberian peninsula (the first wines of Oporto would be due for them). These new drinks compete with hard the clarets Gascon S.
The family Pontiac then chooses a new way for the breeding of her wine: the soil is emphasized, the quite neat vine, the wines raised in new barrels in Chêne. Benefitting from an inn which it holds with London, the Pontiac family makes known her wines in England. They if are appreciated that they end up being sold expensive than the ordinary clarets. The other traders of Bordeaux then put themselves to imitate them, the businesses flower and the vineyard extends again, this time towards the low registers of the Medoc and the Sauternais, like in the areas of Blaye and Bourg. It is at that time that the large vineyards of the Médoc are created. At the same time are born the first great wines of Bordeaux.
GeographyThe soils of the vineyard of Bordeaux are characterized by their geographical location with respect to the the Garonne and of the the Gironde (see chart above).
Over left bank of the Garonne and along the Estuary, the Alluvion S dominate the vineyard over more than 150 km. But not any. They are primarily low registers: rollers and peastones coming from the the Pyrenees, where the river takes its source 600 km upstream. These low registers on sand constitute well drained, hot and perfect terraces for the vine and the Cabernet-sauvignon in particular. On the other side of the river, the soils have a different origin, with coasts and hills argilo-limestones and grounds deeper, perfect for the Merlot, for example.
Generic namesIt is names to which all the vineyards of the of Bordeaux one can claim, including the most prestigious names described low.
MedocThe vineyard of the Médoc extends on left bank from the the Gironde, of Saint-Vivien-of-Medoc in north until Bordeaux in the south.
- Vineyard of the Medoc
Low registersThe vineyard of the Low registers extends to the south from Bordeaux along the the Garonne, until the Canton of Langon.
- Vineyard of the Low registers
- Vineyard of Cérons
- Vineyard of Barsac
- Vineyard of Sauternes
Vineyards of Blaye and BourgThe vineyard of the Bourgeais-Blayais extends between Right Bank from the the Gironde and the border from the department from the Charente-Maritime.
- Vineyard of Blaye
- Vineyard of Coast-of-Blaye
- Vineyard of First-coast-of-Blaye
- Vineyard of the Coast-of-Borough
St. Emilion - Pomerol - FronsacThe vineyard of St. Emilion - Pomerol - Fronsac extends on Right Bank from the the Dordogne, of Libourne in the west until in limit of the department of the the Dordogne in the east. This zone is parcelled out since on a small surface it comprises many names, very of red wines:
- Vineyard of St. Emilion
- Vineyard of Mountain-Saint-Émilion
- Vineyard of Saint-Georges-Saint-Émilion
- Vineyard of Lussac-Saint-Émilion
- Vineyard of Puisseguin-Saint-Émilion
- Vineyard of Pomerol
- Vineyard of Lalande-of-Pomerol
- Vineyard of Fronsac
- Vineyard of Gun-Fronsac
- Vineyard of Néac
- Vineyard of Coast-of-Castillon
- Vineyard of Bordeaux-Coast-of-Franc
Between-Two-SeasThis vineyard of Bordeaux extends between the the Dordogne and the the Garonne inside the department from the the Gironde.
- Vineyard of the Between-Two-Seas
- Vineyard of Serious-of-Vayres
- Vineyard of First-coast-of-Bordeaux
- Vineyard of Cadillac
- Vineyard of Loupiac
- Vineyard of Holy-Cross-of-Mount
- Vineyard of Haut-Benauge
- Vineyard of Coast-of-Bordeaux-Saint-Macaire
- Vineyard of Holy-Foy-Bordeaux
Official classifications of the wines of Bordeaux
Official classification of the wines of Bordeaux of 1855At the time of the World Fair of Paris of 1855, the Chamber of commerce of Bordeaux formulated the following request with the Trade union of the brokers: “ We come to ask you to agree to transmit the quite exact list to us and well supplements of all the classified red vintages of the department while specifying to which of the five classes each one of them belongs and while announcing in which commune they are. ”
The trade union of the brokers addressed the famous official classification the April 8th 1855. It included/understood in fact only the classified great wines of the Médoc, to which was added the Château Haut-Brion in the Vignoble of the Low registers. This list was accompanied by those of the white wines coming from the five communes profiting from names Sauternes and Barsac.
This classification underwent only one important modification: by decree of the June 21st 1973, the Château Sheep-Rothschild was promoted with the row of first vintage. Consequently occasion, the first vintages were classified alphabetically:
Official classification of the middle-class vintages of the Medoc of 2003Since 1932, a nonofficial classification said Cru middle-class existed for wines of the Médoc and High-Medoc. It related to 444 vintages less prestigious than the vintages appearing in the initial classification of 1855.
Since a ministerial decree of 2003, an official classification of the middle-class vintages of the Medoc, revisable every 12 years, was established by a jury under the aegis of the Chamber of commerce of Bordeaux and the Room of agriculture of the Gironde.
This classification retained 247 vintages (out of 490 vintages candidates), establishing a hierarchy in 3 categories:
- believed exceptional (9 vintages)
- believed middle-class superior (87 vintages) middle-class
- believed (151 vintages).
77 vintages not selected or estimating itself classified badly obtained in front of the administrative court of Bordeaux the possibility of a re-examination of their candidature. The administrative court of call of Bordeaux, on February 26th, 2007, definitively cancelled the classification of 2003, leaving the Alliance of the middle-class vintages in uncertainty.
This new classification makes it possible to restore a name somewhat galvaudée in the Medoc.
For an exhaustive list:
Classification of the Low register winesThe classification of 1855 not taking account of the Serious wines of (except for the Haut-Brion Castle), the wine Trade union and the National institute of the Labels of origin established a classification which was officialized by the ministerial decree of the February 16th 1959. This classification relates to the white wines and the red wines.
Classification of the wines of St. EmilionNone the vintages of Saint-Émilion appears in the classification of 1855. The wine trade union decided to establish its own classification, revisable every 10 years. This period was always lengthened by the administrative times. The first classification goes back to 1954, and the last date of 2006. One finds there the first twelve great wines classified and 62 classified great wines.
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