Étymologiquement, the word vicar comes from Latin vicarius meaning substitute .
- the vicar is a priest which assists the Curé in a Paroisse Catholique. It is usually chosen by the priest, his choice having to be approved by the bishop. A vicar is remunerated by the priest on the income which is allotted to him. In Brittany, strongly marked by the Catholicism, one calls the priest Recteur , while vicars are called cleaned , and the auxiliary priests are sometimes called vicars .
- a perpetual vicar is serving it of a church whose priest is a Moral person, concretely a religious community which perceives the incomes attached to this church. As its title the advertisement, the perpetual vicar is irremovable compared to ordinary vicar subjected to the parochial contingencies.
- Vicar of Christ : titrate pontifical
- Expiation apostolic vicar
- the cardinal vicar of Rome is the cardinal which compensates for the Pape in his functions of bishop of Rome. It with the responsibility of announce the death of the pope to the people of Rome.
Worsen Roman and Early middle ages
In the organization of the Roman Empire starting from Dioclétien, the vicar is the person in charge of a Diocèse, together of Provinces. He is thus the superior of the Gouverneur S and the subordinate of the Préfet of the court.
At the time Carolingian, the vicar is an officer charged to return the Justice. Its jurisdiction is a Vicairie or Viguerie. With the Feudality, the vicars transform their function into a personal domination on the men, whom they return Héréditaire.
Saint Worsens Roman Germanic
The title of imperial vicar was also used in the Saint Germanic Roman Empire. It nominated initially the person charged to manage the empire in the event of vacancy of the imperial seat. It also appointed a governor of province, but this role became symbolic system as from the 14th century. There remained however snuffed until the modern time because he brought to the small local sovereigns a political addition of legitimacy.
VicariatesAt the beginning of the 13th century, the emperor Frederic II organized the regnum Italy (" kingdom of Italie" , i.e. the north of the peninsula) in several vicariates. These vicariates were entrusted to imperial representatives named for one year and whose competences were at the same time civil and military. These vicars were inspired by the organization which it had set up in Sicily. Of 1237 with 1240, nine vicariates imperial were founded:
- general Vicariate of the Walk of Trévise (1239]).
- Vicariate of the province of downstream of Pavia, whose capital is Crémone (1239).
- general Vicariate of the Kingdom of Burgundy (1239).
- Vicariate of Romagna (1239).
- Vicariate of Lunigiana, centered on the Ligurie (1239).
- Vicariate of Tuscan (1240).
- Vicariate of the Walk of Ancône and duchy of Spolète (1240).
- Vicariate of pontifical Tuscany (1240).
Imperial vicar and pontifical Vicar
In Italy of north and center, the title of imperial Vicar (delivered by the emperor or of pontifical Vicar delivered by the Pape was used at the end of the 13th century and all the 14th century to name an imperial or pontifical representative of authority on a territory. The attribution of the title is worth recognition of the legal and administrative functions on this territory for a number of years given with the help of the payment of an amount of money (the census).
The vicar with faculty to judge the causes in last authority, to exert the right of reprieve, to prescribe legal provisions supplanting the communal statutes, to impose new taxes, it also has the right of peace and guerre.
The imperial Vicar can add the imperial eagle to his armorial bearings.
In the evolution of the capacity in the commune Italian, the stage of vicariate is between the periods of the communal institutions (council of the consuls, Capitaine of the people, Podestat) and that of the hereditary seigneuriaux titles, obtained by the means of L `feudal institution (duke count, marquis), which will take its continuation of the end of the 14th century at the 15th century and by which the emperor and the pope will mark their authority on their territories.
The installation of pontifical Vicariate was especially the work of the cardinal Albornoz.
Although fallen in disuse, imperial Vicariate remained snuffed in Italy of north until the 19th century by the local lords to which it brought a certain legitimacy.
- late Antiquité
- “ imperial Vicaire ” is a title of the Saint Germanic Roman Empire
- Italy with the Middle Ages Ve - XVe century - J.P. Delumeau, I. Heullant-Donat - Hatchet 2000
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