The Vermont is a State the North-East of the the United States. It is bordered in north by the Canadian province of the Quebec, in the east by the New Hampshire, the Massachusetts in the south and the State of New York in the west. It is the only landlocked State of the New England, i.e. it does not open on the Atlantic Ocean. It is made conspicuous by the homogeneity of its population and its very low Taux of urbanization of the " green montagnes".
HistoryOn arrival of the first Europeans, the Amerindians iroquois who lived in the current State of New York and the algonquins of New England were in fight for the possession of the area which was explored, for the first time, by the French Samuel de Champlain, in 1609. The French were established in the north of the area, around the lake Champlain. In 1666, they built the Fort Holy-Anne, on the island La Motte of the Lac Champlain. Samuel de Champlain named the mountains the Greens Mounts.
As for the British, they were established in the South. In 1724, Brattleboro (or strong Dummer) became the first colony of Vermont. Two other British colonies, New Hampshire and that of New York, asserted the jurisdiction of Vermont. Their competition intensified after the elimination of the French at the time of the treaty of Paris of 1763. Colonization accelerated with the surge of colonists come from Connecticut, the Rhode Island and the Massachusetts. In 1770, the colony of New York started to undertake procedures of expulsion against the concessions granted by the colony of the New Hampshire.
About the middle of the 18th century, the population density having become important on the Atlantic coast, the British colonists go towards the interior, which involves a conflict between the colony of New York and the New Hampshire, because the borders are not delimited between these two British colonies. Benning Wentworth, governor of New Hampshire, in spite of the protests of sound opposite New Yorkean, Georges Clinton, makes register the territory which is Vermont today (until on western bank of the lake Champlain) and creates townships that it gives in concession to his favorites and on which colonists will be established. They is what is called the “ Hampshire Grants ” or quite simply “ the Grants ”.
In 1764, the British Parliament declares that the border between New York and New Hampshire is the western bank of Connecticut. This decision causes that many colonists of the grounds located on the “ grants ”, find themselves in the colony of New York where their concessions were not recognized. In 1765, the New Yorkean land-surveyors invade the area and make a new land register, demanding that the colonists come from New Hampshire pay rights to legalize their property on the grounds which they occupy.
In 1767, the colonists address a petition to the king to be exempted rights in question. The king issues that New York must cease emitting new titles and not to badger the colonists. In 1769, New York defies the king and sends new land-surveyors. Colonists révoltent : in 1770, an about sixty of them take their rifles and drive out the land-surveyors of the farm of a certain James Breakenbridge. The cause must be heard in Supreme court of New York with Albany and the colonists elect a defense committee called “ the Bennington Nine ” chaired by Ethan Allen, 32 years, ex-blacksmith and hunter. The Court of New York refuses to recognize the validity of the documents emitted by New Hampshire attesting the documents of title of the colonists. (The court is chaired by Robert Livingston which has New Yorkean titles…) The colonists do not have any chance in front of a court also skewed and, consequently, lose their cause. Allen goes to Bennington (principal village “ Grants ”) and approximately 200 men in a militia “The Green Mountain Boys organizes”. The New Yorkeans call them “ The Bennington Mob ”. In 1771, the New Yorkean land-surveyors are of return and are made push back without care by the “ Green Mountain Boys ”. When British colonists sent by the New Yorkean speculators try to be established on grounds already taken, they are also pushed back.
The governor of New York declares Ethan Allen and his men “ Outlaw ” and a premium for their capture offers. Ethan Allen retorts by offering a premium for the capture of official the New Yorkeans. In a series of skirmishes of the colonists of New York or the New Jersey are expelled by Green Mountain Boys. In 1775, a colonist is killed by a New Yorkean sheriff. At the same time, it is the battle of Lexington and the beginning of the war of Independence of the USA. The revolutionary agitation which gained the thirteen colonies since the end of the Guerre Seven Year old assigns also the colonists of the back-country.
The colonists of Grants consider however that their enemy, it is New York. Favorable nevertheless to the cause of the Congress, they seize, in May 1775, of Strong Ticonderoga, places British, which expels in fact the forces loyal supporters of their territory. Thus they prevent that the forces of the Congress intervene.
In 1777, a Convention is held in Westminster and organizes a government, while proclaiming the independence of the republic of the “ New Connecticut ”. A new convention in July baptizes the new State Vermont. In 1778 the first elections take place.
Thomas Chittenden is elected president. In fact, the Allen brothers (Ethan, Will go, Heman) control the government. Another brother Allen, Levi, is a Loyal supporter (Name given to the Americans in favor of the British Crown during the War of independence).
The State of New York refuses to recognize Vermont. The new republic tries to waver but must undergo some incursions of Indians combined to the British and some rebellions of New Yorkean colonists “ pro-américains ”. In 1779, Vermont expels colonists of New Hampshire. Those create a parallel government. The same year, the British make peace overtures in Vermont, trying to detach it from any alliance with the USA. Chittenden written with the Congress that Vermont was “ At liberty to accept terms off suspension off hostilities with Great Britain without the approval off any other man gold body off men. ” In fact, it is Ethan Allen and his/her Ira brother who negotiate with the British who promise the statute of “  to him; province séparée ” and the free trade guaranteed with the Province of Quebec (Name given to old the News-France until 1791), like its own army and the recognition of the documents of title of the colonists in exchange of a support to the British cause. Allen does not want to engage. In parallel, Chittenden offers a narrower alliance of Connecticut, New York and Vermont against a British invasion! This, in exchange of an abandonment by New York of its claims on the territory vermontois.
In 1781, the British try to take again Ticonderoga, a skirmish takes place with Green Mountain Boys and a British sergeant is killed. That made fall through the negotiations… Vermontois lean American side. Finally, the Traité of Paris, in 1783, considers Vermont as belonging to the American territory that the British must evacuate.
A movement takes shape in favor of adhesion in the USA in spite of the opposition of the Allen clan. In 1789, a Joint Committee “ New York/Vermont ” rule the question of the borders (Vermont pays 30 000 $ and New York give up its claims). In 1791, Vermont enters the Union. It is the first State to be added to the 13 States founders.
In 2000, it counted 608 827 inhabitants, which gives of it the second a report less populated on the United States. The capital of the State is Montpellier, and more the big city is Burlington. Only seven cities exceed the 10 000 inhabitants. Vermont belongs to the New England and extends on 24 902 km ²: it relatively small is compared with the other States (45e national row for the surface).
The Western bank of the Connecticut To rivet mark limit of Vermont with New Hampshire. The Lake Champlain, the principal stretch of water of the State and the sixth of the United States, separate Vermont from the State of New York. North in the south, the State makes 256 km for 143 km of is in west. In the North-West of the lake the fertile valley of Champlain Valley is. The geographical center of the State is with Washington, to 5 km in the east of Roxbury.
List of the cities:
Vermont has many green mountainous reliefs of which the vegetation is made up of leafy trees and conifers.
The Mont Mansfield is the culminating point of Vermont which is covered with 77 % by forests.
List of the tops:
- Mount Ellen, in the Green Mountains.
- Mount Ascutney
ClimateVermont is known for its autumns coloured thanks to the maple rigorous S and its winters. North is colder than the southern part. Snowing up is important and allows the practice of the ski in several stations (Stowe for example).
The records of temperatures are:
Parks of State ( State Parks )
SubdivisionsThe State of Vermont is divided of 14 counties ( counties ).
to *Voir the list of the Counties of the State of Vermont
HistoryThe inhabitants of Vermont are known for their political independence and their sights progressists. Thus, Vermont abolishes slavery as of 1777. During the American Revolution, the State is the first to found the white male vote, without condition of income, whereas the 12 other States adopt the vote censitaire. Vermont is an old republican bastion : with the presidential election of 1936, it is the only State, with close Maine, to choose the republican candidate who presented himself against Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
The Republican party a long time dominated the political life of Vermont until the Années 1960. The Democratic party was perceived like a party reactionary, follower initially of the Esclavage then of the segregation. It is quite naturally that Vermont turned to the party of Lincoln after having been a bastion of the Whig S liberals of the 19th century.
In the Years 1960, after the adoption of the civic rights under the administration of Lyndon Johnson and the choice of the ultraconservator Barry Goldwater like republican candidate to the presidential election of 1964, of many moderate republicans of Vermont started to join the tiny Democratic party of Vermont.
In parallel, a Left progressist Vermont, located very on the left of the political chessboard American but comparable with the Scandinavian social democrat parties, east develops and was represented since the Années 1980 with (on a total of 150,4 elected officials in 2002,6 in 2004 and 2006). At the time of the presidential elections of the 20th century, the voters of Vermont systematically chose republican candidates including during the mandates of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Thus, in 1936, it is one of the two only States to be voted for the republican candidate against Roosevelt. It is only in 1964 that the voters of the State vote for the first time for a democratic candidate, in fact Lyndon Johnson against Barry Goldwater. It is necessary to await 1992 and Bill Clinton so that these voters reiterate such an policy option. Since, more no republican candidate succeeded in asserting himself in the presidential elections on Vermont. In 2000 and 2004, the voters of the State voted by plebiscite the democrats Al Gore and John Kerry, which respectively received 60% and 62% of the popular vote in this State.
A State progressistVermont always had a policy strongly marked in the fields of environmental protection, the social services and the urbanization. Montpellier is the only capital of a state federated not to have of restaurant McDonald's. In 1999, the Supreme court of Vermont has enjoint in the State of Vermont to grant the right to the marriage or of the rights equivalent to the homosexual couples . The legislature of Vermont chose to authorize the civil unions guaranteeing to homosexual almost all the rights and the privileges granted to the traditional couples within the framework of the marriage. Between July 2000 and January 2002: 3600 civil unions were contracted in Vermont.
Organization of the capacitiesThe inhabitants of Vermont elect every two years a governor and a lieutenant-governor. The current governor of Vermont is the republican Jim Douglas since 2003, re-elected in 2006.
The legislature of Vermont is made up of a general meeting divided into Room of the representatives of Vermont, composed of 150 members and dominated by 93 democrats, and of a Senate of 30 members, controlled by 23 democrats at the time of the session 2007 - 2008.
All the mandates of the town councilors of Vermont are one two years duration. The Participative democracy there is very developed: the Town Meeting Day (general meeting of the citizens of Vermont) make it possible to discuss political questions.
At the national level, at the time of the legislature 2007-2008, Vermont is represented by the Democratic senator Patrick Leahy and the independent senator Bernard Sanders, former mayor of Burlington which is asserted like Socialiste. With the Room of the Representatives, Vermont is represented by a democrat since January 2007.
Vermont is the State of birth of the presidents Calvin Coolidge and Chester A. Arthur.
Independence initiatives or promoting fastening in Canada
A hundred American secessionists proposed in 2004 the independence of Vermont and its association in Quebec, by associating the four seaboard provinces if possible with it: Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Island of the Prince-Edouard.
There exists also a movement proposing the independence of Vermont or its fastening in Canada to become the eleventh province about it. A work of Thomas Naylor, professor of economy to the retirement of the University of Duke and consulting on behalf of Russia at the time of the bursting of the the USSR. The separatist movement that it directs calls - The Green Mountain Manifesto Independence Movement, it was shown to be related to racist organizations, like. According to Naylor, 8% of the citizens of Vermont wish that their State leave the Union
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