The Valteline (in Italian: Valtellina , in German Veltlin ) is an area of Italy of north, bordering on Switzerland, which corresponds roughly to its affluent and valley Adda.
GeographyLong 119 km and broad of 66, Valteline belongs to the Lombardy and, more particularly, of the Province of Sondrio, its principal city. It lengthens the North-East (massive of Bormio) towards south-west or the Adda finishes its course while being thrown in the Lac of Like. This valley includes/understands two very differentiated parts: the Highone is a narrow and boxed valley head office south-south-west. Starting from Tirano, the valley widens and follows an almost rectilinear course towards the west. The higher valley is surrounded by a side by the tops of Ortler, other by those of the solid mass of Grosina. The low valley is dominated over its Right Bank (in north) by the solid mass of Bernina and over that of left (in the south) by the Alps bergamasks. Side of Switzerland, the border does not follow the watersheds and particularly in the valley di Poschiavo politically attached to Switzerland.
Valteline lower belongs to the vast orographical depression which separates the central Alps from the Alps of the South. At the beginning of the higher valley, the master key of Stilfser leads to the the southernmost Tyrol, the collar of Umbrail towards the Valley Müstair, the collar of Fraele towards Low the Engadine and the collar of Foscagno, towards Livigno. At the beginning of the lower valley, the collar of Aprica carries out towards the Val Camonica (and from there by the collar of Tonal, towards the Trentin), the collar of Bernina towards the Highone and the collar of Muretto towards Bergell.
Extreme altitudes are 4021 m with the punta Purchetti (Piz Bernina) and 198 m with Piantedo.
Valteline belonged as of the 14th century to the Duché of Milan.
Starting from 1512, it passed, like Chiavenna, under the dependence of the Three Leagues (which were going later to become the Swiss canton of the Grisons) which raised of the Swiss Confédération. When the Milanais returned to the Habsbourgs, Valteline acquired with the eyes of this family a major strategic importance, since it controlled the most direct passage between Italy of north and the valleys of Inn and the Rhine, therefore towards Austria and the territories of the Holy roman Empire.
This is why, in a repeated way, they sought to recover sovereignty of it. However, at the time of the Protestant Reform, Valteline remained faithful to Catholicism while the Grisons, and particularly the Engadine, adopted Protestantism. It resulted from it a denominational opposition marked between vassal catholics from Valteline and Protestant suzerains of the Grisons, opposition which tried to exploit with their profit, with a poor result, Habsbourg, which found in particular on their road, during the Guerre Thirty Year old the strategic ally of the gray leagues, France of Louis XIII, Richelieu and the Père Joseph.
During the twenty animated years which followed the violent one conflict with the Grisons (Sacro Macello) of 1620, Spain, Venice, the Grisons and France disputed the area, whereas the Peste falls down on the area in June 1629. The capitulat of Milan of 1639 issued the return of the gray Leagues, but only the Catholic religion was allowed (foreign Protestants not being able to have fixed residence in the valley).
At the time of the diets of the Leagues, the inhabitants of Valteline protested against the powerful Grison families, in particular Salis, which controlled the local economy. What enabled them to pass under the control of the République cisalpine in 1797. The Grison attempt to take again the valley after the defeat of Napoleon having failed, the congress of Vienna attached the county to the kingdom of Lombardy-Venezia (Austrian).
The suzerainty of the Grisons ceased in 1807 when Napoleon attached in an authoritative way Valteline to the République cisalpine. At the time of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Valteline was attached to the new kingdom of Lombardy-Venezia, bound by a personal union to Austria and these various changes were accommodated favorably by the majority of the inhabitants who had had to regret the heavy supervision of the Grisons.
TourismAt the beginning of Tirano, a railway line known as Rhätische Bahn or Berninabahn ( rhetic line or line of Bernina ) led to the Swiss sector of Poschiavo and, beyond, towards the Highone. A complete line of railroads of State goes from Sondrio and Lecco towards Milan and Bergamo just as another of Sondrio towards Chiavenna.
The sector of high mountain offers many possibilities to the mountaineers. There are in Valteline several winter sports resorts, in particular Bormio, Chiesa in Valmalenco and Caspoggio. The sector of the Valley Masino is interesting for the climbing (granitic rocks of Bergell).
Vine growing and gastronomyA known production is the wine named Veltliner . The vines push centuries since, mainly in the large vineyards of the average and lower valley where the type of vine bears the same name. They are wines (mainly red, but also rosy or white) of very good quality, whose characteristics are varied so much at the alcoholic level than organoleptic (for example varieties Inferno, Sforzato, Grumello, Montagna, etc)
Apart from local consumption, these wines are mainly exported towards Switzerland, and they constitute still today in the Grisons almost a national drink been useful at the time of the various festivities.
These wines as well as possible accompany the specialities by the area, the such dried meat (Viande of the Grisons), the Polenta, the bresaola, the Saucisse, the Lard, the Salami, the Mortadelle, which are also extremely appreciated specialities of Valteline.
It is necessary to quote a typical dish of the area: the Pizzocherri , dish of pastes (Tagliatelle S made with flour of buckwheat and wheat), prepared with Butter, Parmesan, Garlic, Sage, a Onion and Vegetable S (Cabbage, Bean S greens, Potatoes, Blette S)
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