Its youth under the communist capacity
Václav Havel is born with Prague the October 5th 1936; it finishes its compulsory schooling in 1951. Resulting from an important family of contractors and humanistic of Prague shown by the Communist regime to have collaborated with the Germans, it is like the majority of the elites or " enemies of classe" interdict of studies by this one, social marginalisation imposed besides whereas he refused already itself to be recognized more for his " social position favorable" (= family and financial means in Marxism) that for its spirit. During four years, whereas he was apprentice-technician in a chemical laboratory, Havel attended courses of the evening in a college, thus preparing the baccalaureat which would enable him to undertake studies of economy in Polytechnique. Encouraged by family tradition to be interested in the human values of the Czech Republic repressed or destroyed by the Communists in the Years 1950, Václav Havel started as of the nineteen years age to publish articles and news, in particular in reviews related to the theater.
After its military service, he worked as trainee with the Theater ABC, then later, as of 1960, with the theater “on the balustrade” ( Divadlo Na zábradlí ). This second theater produced its first part, The Garden Party (1963), a part presenting in a remarkable manner strong regeneration of the tendencies which prevailed in the culture and the Czech company in the Années 1960 and which culminated at the time of the Printemps of Prague of 1968. For him, its action in the public life and cultural was a means of promoting its democratic ideal.
Václav Havel was initially inspired by the Theater of the absurd, then its dissenting word took the top.
A representative of the Czechoslovakian opposition
After the invasion of the Czechoslovakia by the Soviet troops, which marks the end of the process of liberalization of the Printemps of Prague, Václav Havel did not give up its convictions. He was president of the Cercle of the independent writers , then active member within the club of the committed Without-party . Its engagement cost him a censure against the publication of its parts (In 1974, he worked in a brewery). Thereafter, Václav Havel started to be known by the international community like a representative of the Czechoslovakian intellectual opposition. As a citizen, he protested against the intense oppression which marked the Normalization in Czechoslovakia. Its open letter addressed in 1975 to the Czechoslovakian president Gustáv Husák, in which he denounced the critical situation of the company and the responsibility for the political regime, knew a broad repercussion. In 1977, it was one of the cofounders, and one of the three spokespersons of the Charte 77, an defense organization of the human rights in Czechoslovakia. Its action carried out it in prison to three recoveries where it passed nearly five years, between 1977 and 1989. At this point in time he wrote a remarkable test: Capacity of the without-capacity , in 1978 in which it analyzes the gasoline of the totalitarian oppression of the Communists. It describes the mechanisms used by the Communist regime of which the goal is to create a company without being able, resigned made up apprehensive and morally corrupted individuals. Behind this analysis, it showed the force of moral resistance and the life. Its test had an impact not only among Czechoslovakian dissidents, but also in the movements of opposition of the other “socialist” countries.
1989: the velvet Revolution
In November 1989, Václav Havel was with the head of the movement “civic Forum”, a plain association of the movements of opposition and democratic initiative. He then became a key character of the Révolution of velvet.
In December 1989, Václav Havel is elected temporary president of the Czechoslovakia, while waiting for the parliamentary elections. The democratically elected members of Parliament renewed it with the presidency of the republic in July 1990.
Then president of the Federal republic of Tchéquie and Slovakia, it very quickly met all the chiefs of the European States, as well as the president of the the United States, the the USSR and many other countries. Its action on the international scene made it possible the country to have new relationships to outside. In interior policy, Václav Havel led the democratic changes in the administration of the country and the democratization of the company. He was recognized like a president nonin favor and an essential authority on the political scene like in the Czech relations between and Slovaques. The July 20th 1992, it resigns of its president's function when the partition between Czechs and Slovak becomes inescapable. After its withdrawal, it left the public life for two months. In September 1992, it fell from agreement with the suggestion of the government, that the president is elected by the two rooms of the Parliament, that it cannot be revoked by this one, and that it has the right to dissolve the Parliament. In January 1993, Václav Havel is elected first president of the Czech Republic. He was re-elected in 1998. In 2003, Václav Klaus succeeded to him.
Post-presidential careerIn November and December 2006, Havel spends eight weeks to the the United States. It takes part in conferences and lectures in the Université Columbia. It also has a public discussion with the former president Bill Clinton.
Following this voyage, it publishes a collection of discussions with Karel Hvížďala. To tell the truth ( prosím stručně ) is presented thus in the form of memories of the former president.
In 2007, it publishes Partir ( Odcházení ) a part on the abandonment the capacity. The representation of the part creates a small scandal, because the playwright wants that his wife plays the mistress of the chancellor Vilém Rieger. First of all planned for the National theater, she thus is finally proposed with the Théâtre of Vinohrady where Dagmar Havlová plays, the woman of the former president.
AffiliationsHe is honorary member of the Club of Rome.
- 1986 : Price Erasmus
- 1989: Price Olof Palme
- Price Simón Bolívar
- 1990: Grand Cross of the Legion of honor (France).
- 1990 : Price UNESCO of the human rights
- 1991: Price Charlemagne
- 1991: Price Sonning
- 1993: Price Theodor Heuss
- presidential Medal of freedom
|Random links:||Prima 5 | Vittorio Emanuele III (battleship) | Ant-Zen | Members about Canada, alphabetically X | Hope of profit to the poker | Kyle Petty | Tera-|