The Uzbek ( o' zbek tili ) is a language belonging to the group of the Turkish Langues of the family of the altaïques Langues, spoken by more than 19 million people. It is especially used in Central Asia, mainly in Ouzbékistan (approx. 17 million speakers on 20 million ethnic Uzbeks and 26 million Ouzbékistannais), where it is the official language, with the Tadjikistan (873.000), with the Kirghizstan (550.000), with the Turkménistan (400.000) and in Afghanistan. She is also spoken in China (province ouïgoure of Xinjiang) (393.000).
The modern Uzbek draws its origins in the Turkish language (turcic) tchaghataï (or djaghataï) which was also the source of the language ouïgoure. The emir Mir Alisher Navoï, large poet and philisophe of the 16th century, largely contributed to the formation of the modern Uzbek language. The current official Uzbek is based on the dialect of Ferghana and to a lesser extent, on that of Tachkent. One can also note the dialects karlouk , kiptchak and oghouz .
Officially, one distinguishes the Uzbek from north , spoken in Ouzbékistan and in the other countries about Central Asia (code: UZB or ISO 639-1: uz, ISO 639-2: uzb) and the Uzbek of the south , spoken in Afghanistan and Turkey (code: UZS or ISO 639-2: concealed).
Before 1928, the Uzbek alphabet was Arab, of 1928 at the years 1940 - Latin (version of the Yanalif), of 1940 to 1992 - Cyrillic, as from the 1992 - again Latin but altered (initially in the version close to the Turkish , then, since May 1995, with a transliteration without diacritic signs ). Nowadays, the writing in Cyrillic remainder still very largely used, including in the documents, presses and Uzbek official press releases, the Latin writing generally limiting itself to the signs of street, under newspapers and the other short texts. The Uzbeks of China use a modified Arabic alphabet.
Cyrillic alphabet (officially tolerated until 2010)
- Latin alphabet (version of 1995)
The text of Article 1 of the Universal declaration of the Human rights in Uzbek written in Latin and Cyrillic characters:
Barcha odamlar erkin, qadr-qimmat goes huquqlarda teng bo' lib tug' iladilar. Ular aql goes vijdon sohibidirlar goes bir-birlari ila birodarlarcha muomala qilishlari zarur.
Барчаодамларэркин, қадр-қимматваҳуқуқлардатенгбўлибтуғиладилар. Уларақлвавиждонсоҳибидирларвабир-бирлариилабиродарларчамуомалақилишларизарур.
( Translation in French: All the human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and must act the ones towards the others in a spirit of fraternity. )
PronunciationThe ouzbèque language (and specifically dominant accents of Tachkent and Ferghana) have a double characteristic compared to the others Turkish Langues: it is characterized by the absence of the vocalic Harmonie, which has occurred, most probably, under influence of the Persan, and by the okanié or reduction of vowels (when certain panturques decide like). The last finds its reflection in the historical rule of transliteration of the names and of the Uzbek proper names being written with a “O” towards a panturque form with “has” (Toshkent - Tashkent, Islom - Islam, Andijon - Andijan, Abdullo - Abdullah). This transliteration is always practiced to a certain extent, in spite of the passage of the Uzbek to the Latin alphabet. It should be noted that the vocalic harmony is definitely less present in the Uzbek of the north and the west of Ouzbékistan.
Uzbek examples of words
the Uzbek language (linguistic data and bibliography)
- Table of transliteration of the Cyrillic Uzbek (pdf)
|Random links:||Grave accent | The King Pêcheur (film) | Jean-Ernest II of Saxony-Weimar | Alex Gopher | Avenue du Diamant | Fleuve_d'Oder|