The Uruguay is a country of South America located at the south of the Brésil and the east of the Argentine, from which it is separated by the river Uruguay which gave him its name (official name is República Oriental LED Uruguay , i.e. “Eastern Republic of Uruguay” - that it is with the East of the Uruguay river -. Its capital is Montevideo.
Origin of the nameThe name Uruguay comes from the guarani. Although its significance is not very clear, Felix de Azara affirmed that this name indicates small a Oiseau named el urú which lives on banks of the river Uruguay (which means to him même-alors “river of the country of the urú” ( río LED país LED urú ). Nevertheless, one of the guide of Azara gave another version by saying that the word Uruguay is divided into two parts: uruguá meaning “Snail”, and the I meaning River, the translation would be thus “river of snails” ( río of los caracols ). Lastly, the poet Juan Zorrilla de San Martín interpreted the word in a third way, like the “river of the painted birds” ( río of los pájaros pintados ).
See also: History of Uruguay
The history of this country really starts with that of the Guaraní people and the Charrúas. The latter were the grouping most and more organized. Considered to be inassimilable, them annihilation was decided shortly after the declaration of independence of the country towards 1830.
In 1516, the Spanish discover the territory but forsake it at the beginning because of weakness of its resources naturelles.
The threat caused by the expansion of the Portuguese leads the Conquistador are to build the strengthened city of Montevideo in 1726 and to colonize the country.
The beginning of the 19th century sees the emergence of independence movements a little everywhere in South America, including in Uruguay (then indicated under the name of Banda Eastern , i.e. “Eastern Area”). Between 1811 and 1817, the national hero of the indépendence, Jose Gervasio Artigas organizes the Eastern with an aim of obtaining the independence of the Provincias Unidas LED Rio I of Plata (a good part of Argentina and Uruguay now).
Following treasons and multiple arguments between the local leaders, the initial victories were transformed into defeats, and Artigas - followed tens of thousands of people had to take refuge apart from Bandaged Eastern, and exiled themselves finally in Paraguay from where it did not turn over jamais.
The control of the Uruguyan territory was the argument object between the two States incipient from the Argentine and the Brésil: this last ends up annexing the area in 1821, to baptize it Provincia Cisplatina .
But the April 19th 1825, the nationalist group Treinta there Tres Eastern (“the thirty-three Eastern ones” in Spanish) led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja unloads with the beach of Agraciada and begins the war of independence with respect to Brazil. This war finishes the August 28th 1828 with the Traité of Montevideo. The first constitution of the country was signed the July 18th 1830.
Between 1839 and 1851, Uruguay knows a named civil war Great War during which the partisans Colorados of Fructuoso Rivera and those Blancos of Manuel Oribe clash. After the final victory of Colorados, the country takes part in the Guerre of Triple Alliance against the Paraguay at the end of the century.
Of 1903 with 1920, the country saw its hours of prosperity with the president Jose Batlle there Ordóñez, which is worth to him the nickname of “Switzerland of America” ( Suiza de América ). It is then touched by the crisis of 1929, which is really surmounted only starting from 1950. The country joins again then with a prosperity which recalls the Batlle era.
Starting from 1959, the country is again struck of full whip by an economic crisis and social, then political, which leads finally the June 27th 1973 to a coup d'etat and a military dictatorship with Juan María Bordaberry.
The progressive return towards the democracy started in 1981 and in 1985, the free elections mark the beginning of the democracy, whose one of the principal achievements was to approach its neighbors to form the Mercosur. These exchanges brought the hope for the country of one return to prosperity in a near future.
See also: Political of Uruguay
See also: List of the presidents of Uruguay
The Uruguyan mode makes an strict application of the principle of separation of the capacities:
- the Executive power is entrusted to the president of the Republic, elected for a 5 years mandate. He is at the same time the Head of the State and the chief of the government ( Prime Minister ).
- the Legislative power is ensured by a bicameral Parliament made up of a General meeting ( Asamblea General ) of 30 Senator S and of a Room of the Representatives ( Cámara of Representing ) of 99 deputies. The members of these two rooms are elected by the universal direct suffrage for some 5 years mandates.
- the judicial Power rests between the hands of the Supreme court of Justice, whose members are named by the General meeting for one 10 years period. It is this court which promulgates the laws (or possibly a constitution). It is also more the legal high authority of the country.
Since March 1st 2005 the president is Tabaré Vázquez, the candidate of the left coalition. It has been a question of the first president not to be neither a Blanco , nor a Colorado for more than 150 years.
Uruguay is one of the country constituting the Mercosur, with the Argentine, the Brésil and the Paraguay. On the internal plan, the government tries to stop the rise of the rate of inflation, to reduce the Chômage and to stabilize the foreign debt. The priorities of the country, from this point of view, are to reform the State and the financial system, to redefine the great principles of its politics foreign, and to give fresh impulse to education and scientific research and technological.
See also: Departments of Uruguay
Uruguay is divided into 19 departments (Castillan: departamentos , singular - departamento ) directed by an intendant (intendente municipal) who is elected for 5 years by the universal direct suffrage. The municipal officials of the Departmental Parliament (Junta Departamental) have a legislative power on the level of the department.
The first departments are formed since 1816 and youngest date of 1885, it is that of Flora.
|| || valign=" top" |
See also: Geography of Uruguay
Uruguay is located in the geographical continuity of the Argentinian Pampa , i.e. the country is mainly made up of large plains. One finds also mountains of low altitude but very escarpées, like the Cuchilla de Haedo and the Cuchilla Grande. The culminating point of the country is the Mont Catedral with its 514 m.
The climate is subtropical and precipitations are constant during the year, which does not prevent the periods of dryness and the rains very abundant (according to the years).
- 985 km with the Brazil
- 579 km with the Argentinian
- 660 km of coasts
See also: Economy of Uruguay, List of Uruguyan companies
The economy of Uruguay is very marked by the Agriculture and in particular by the breeding, since the country is in the prolongation of the meadows of the Argentinian pampa. Follow the agroalimentary Industrie, mainly , and the Tourisme, which develops more and more.
The country which, in the Years 1950, had an economic competitiveness equal to that of the European countries, is plunged in an economic crisis since the Années 1960 and has much difficulty of being raised some. The principal task of the new government is thus logically to erase little by little the Foreign debt of 12,75 billion dollars and to restore the balance of certain economic indicators such as the commercial Balance. The country has profited nevertheless for ten years from the more economic strong growth of the Mercosur, with 3,6 % on average.
The population suffers today still much from this crisis since 23 % of the population lives below the Poverty line.
See also: Demography of Uruguay
The population of Uruguay is primarily concentrated on the littoral. She was estimated in 2004 at 3 240 887 inhabitants, of which 1 565 473 men and 1 675 414 women. The population is primarily urban and lives in the 20 plus big cities of the country, mainly with Montevideo (1,4 million inhabitants).
The majority of the Uruguyans are descendants of Européens arrived at the 19th century, in which the majority were originating in Spain or Italy. More recently, of the Brazil iens and the Argentins have immigrant towards Uruguay, at the same time to flee repressions and to find better living conditions. Recently, this phenomenon was reversed since they is from now on the Uruguyans who immigrate towards the Argentine.
The descendants of Europeans account for 88% of the population. Approximately 8 % of the Uruguyans are mongrel, of one at the same time European and Amerindian ascent. The people of African origin represent 4 % of the inhabitants and the Amerindians represent less 1 % of the national population (mainly of the Guaranis because there is no more no descendant of the Charrúas, original inhabitants of Uruguay exterminated at the 19th century). These two last decades, approximately 500 000 Uruguyans emigrated towards Argentina, Spain or the the United States of America.
Because of weak a Birth rate reaching only 14,44 ‰, of the high Life expectancy ( 75,92 years ) and of the emigration ( 0,32 emigrants for 1 000 inhabitants ), the population of the country ages rather quickly. In addition, the growth of the population is only of 0,51 %.
See also: Culture of Uruguay
The cultural life of Uruguay opened out in several great fields, of which the Peinture (with Juan Manuel Blanes and Pedro Figari), the Sculpture (with Jose Belloni) and the Musique with the Candombé and the Tango (with Jaime Roos and Jorge Drexler). The writers are Jose Enrique Rodó, Horacio Quiroga, Juan Carlos Onetti, Mario Benedetti, Eduardo Galeano, Jorge Majfud and Ricardo Paseyro.
With regard to the language, the Spanish is almost the single spoken language. The Catholic religion represents 66 % of the population: however the State is separated from the Church since 1916, from where the refusal to call the festivals by their religious names.
The Football occupies a very important place in the sporting life, especially since the world cups of 1930 (first world cup, it took place in Uruguay) and 1950, both gained by the national team of the “Célestes”. It should be noted that the equestrian sports inherited the gauchos (herdsmen) play also a crucial role.
CodesUruguay has as codes:
- CX, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- ROU, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- KNOWN, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- URU, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- URY, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- URY, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- UY, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- ZZZ, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- official Gate
Sites of general information
- geographical Encyclopedia of Uruguay
- File of the French Ministry for Foreign Affairs
- File of the Belgian Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Beats-smg: Urugvajos Be-X-old: Уругвай Fiu-vro: Uruguay Simple: Uruguay Zh-min-nan: Uruguay
|Random links:||William Stoughton | Andigné | Giovanni Pesaro | Orio Canavese|