See also: Barberini
Maffeo Barberini (Florence, April 1568 - Rome, July 29th 1644), 233e Pope, of 1623 with 1644, under the name of Urbain VIII (in Latin Urbanus VIII , in Italian Urbano VIII ). " Lilium and rosa " in the Prophecy of Saint Malachie.
Youth and career curiale
Resulting from a noble family of Florence, it becomes orphan of very young father. Brought to Rome by his mother, he is entrusted to the guard of his uncle, Francesco Barberini, apostolic Protonotaire. He is educated with the Roman College, prestigious institution of teaching held by the Jésuites, before following studies of right to the Université of Pisa.
In 1589, after its doctorate, it enters to the Roman Curie like Abréviateur and chief clerk to the Supreme court of the apostolic Signature. In 1592, the Pape Clément VIII appoints it governor of Fano, then apostolic Protonotaire.
In 1601, it is named apostolic Légat to present to Henri IV the pontifical congratulations for the birth of the future Louis XIII. The October 20th 1604, it returns to Paris as a Apostolic nuncio and archbishop in partibus of Nazareth. The September 11th 1606, Paul V distinguishes it by the bar from cardinal. Of 1608 with 1617, it takes pastoral responsabilities with Spolète before returning to the Curia as prefect of the apostolic Signature.
PontificateThe August 6th 1623, with died of Gregoire XV, the Conclave elects it Pape by 50 votes out of 55. It takes the name of Urbain VIII.
One of its first actions is to hold for Rome the Béatification S, and to prohibit the granting of the aureole in the artistic representations, with the canonized people not or béatifiées. It also supports the missions, and creates many Diocèse S in the countries in process of evangelization. In 1627, it founds the Collegium Urbanum , intended to form the futures missionary S.
He was also the last pope to extend the Papal States.
The Galileo businessSeptember 23rd 1632 with the June 22nd 1633 is held the lawsuit of Galileo Galilei, at the end which the Inquisition obtains the judgment and the abjuration of the Florentin scientist.
The thesis (discussed) of Pietro Redondi deserves to be briefly presented here.
In context of Counter-Reformation and of fight against Protestantism, on bottom of War of Thirty Years (precisely at a time when the Protestant forces of Gustave II Adolphe of Sweden go from victory in victory), Urbain VIII is attacked and seriously blamed into full consistory the March 8th 1632. A coterie of prelates pro-Spanish led by the Borgia cardinal reproaches him his mollesse towards the Hérétique S. Barberini are in very great difficulty.
In addition, of very serious charges on the implicit theological consequences of the theses galiléennes are denounced of long time to the the Holy Office by Jesuits. They rest on a central point of the catholic dogma such as defined the thirteenth session of the Concile of Thirty: the Transsubstantiation at the time of the Eucharistie.
If the charge were proven, friendship, of public notoriety, which binds the Florentin pope to the astronomer could definitively compromise the sovereign pontiff. The publication of the Dialogo of Galileo would have been the occasion, more than the cause of the famous lawsuit. The lawsuit of Galileo would thus have been only one subterfuge: to condemn the scientist for minor objections (Héliocentrisme, not respect of the interdict of Copernic pronounced in 1616 by the cardinal Bellarmin) to avoid the Anathema and the to him To rough-hew. Moreover, by sacrificing Galileo, the pope would have saved itself.
Besides always friendly of the scientist, it softens immediately its detention conditions.
In 1642, it is him which condemns the book Augustinus of Jansenius.
A pope builderUrbain VIII was also a large builder. Admiror of the Bernin, it asks him to complete the Barberini palate started with Carlo Maderno and Francesco Borromini. It also orders to him celebrates it baldachin overhanging the pontifical furnace bridge of the Basilique Saint-Pierre (1633). Bronze necessary to its construction is torn off with the roof of the the Pantheon, from where sentence celebrates it: “ Quod not fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini ” (“ what the barbarians did not do, Barberini did it ”).
The direction of the familyThe pontificate of Urbain VIII is characterized by a use enough running at the time, but thorough with a rare degree under the Barberini pope: the Nepotism.
Little time after its election, it names its nephew cardinal Francesco , then librarian of the the Vatican, finally Vice-chancelier. Another of its nephews, Antonio, is also named cardinal, then becomes Camerlingue, finally commander as a chief of the pontifical troops. A third nephew, Taddeo, are him also named cardinal, then prefect of Rome, and general of the papal troops.
Misusing their credit, the Barberini wanted to remove with the duke of Parma, Edouard Farnèse, the duchies of Castro and Ronciglione, and made declare the war with this prince by the pope; after useless efforts, they were obliged to give up their project. They were made so odious by their exactions, that with died of Urbain VIII, in 1644, they were forced to leave Italy. As a whole, the Barberini family piled up great richnesses under the pontificate of Urbain VIII, but she will know some vexations under the following popes, and will be obliged to come itself to take refuge in France.
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