Unterseeboot 155 (1941)
The Town and country planning gathers the actions carried out by the public authorities French in order to support the development of the areas forming the national territory. Acting on a scale vaster than the Political of the city, town and country planning relates to the space provision of the men and the activities. It thus combines Economic development, habitat, Transport S and Communication S.
Town and country planning with the Frenchwoman remains attached to processes in which the State plays a driving role. However, if this policy is based on laws, payments and a budget decided at the national level, its implementation brings into play contractual devices concluded with the territorial collectivities. As for the European Union, it intervenes more and more in the development of the areas by the means of its regional policy. This double movement of Decentralization and European construction results today in utilizing all the levels of the territorial organization to the policy of town and country planning.
A primarily French concept
But town and country planning is before a a whole policy, and especially in France, the notion being even not very common in the majority of the European countries, where the regional and local capacities generally have more big leeways of organization of their territory. Thus, in Germany one does not speak about town and country planning but rather about “space development”.
In France, the territory makes its entry on the scene of the public action since the installation of an action of State in favor of town and country planning in 1950. Let us retain the definition which Claudius-Small Eugene gives this new policy:
“town and country planning, it is research within the geographical framework of France of a better distribution of the men according to the natural resources and the economic activity. ” ( For a national plan of town and country planning , 1950)
Three ideas are contained in this definition:
- town and country planning seems a requirement of space justice: the correction of the disparities (since Paris and the Desert French of Jean-François Gravier, delivers marking of 1947, which has an echo in all the apparatus of State.)
- town and country planning also seems an economic requirement.
- town and country planning introduces the idea of a functional specialization of the territories (“according to… ”).
The territory is placed here in the middle of a vision fordist: to the social division of work a space division of the activities must correspond.
This vision finds a concretization operational in the apparatus of State, in particular in the politico-administrative system, with the coexistence of two ministries in charge of the space questions: town and country planning and the equipment (which will replace the MRU: Ministry for the rebuilding and town planning). For the State, town and country planning can be regarded as the space shutter of the Planification.
The territory must be organized so that one finds a functionality with the socio-economic enshrining. The territory is then a support of the growth. The territory is a system out of Russian headstocks facilitating the space division of the territory: there are territories of command and territories of production (logical of the industrial Déconcentration as from 1954: to leave industries Paris).
Some quotations on town and country planning
“To arrange the territory, it is to become aware of French space like richness and having. ” (Edgard Pisani, Administration of management, administration of mission, Re-examined French of political sciences , n° April 2nd, th and th - June 1956, p. 315-330)
“town and country planning is the instrument of a modern democracy (…) A modern democracy must be a virile democracy. Town and country planning offers the sphere of activity and the possibility of its blooming to him. It is not the policy of a group, a government or a mode. It is the work of the nation, a permanent work which overflows the immediate concern. It is the crusade of all the French for the conquest and the construction of their future. It is the new expression of the civic spirit. ” (Philippe Lamour, 60 million French , Buchet/Chastel, Paris, 1967, p. 287-288)
“crumbled many certainty. The straight line, for example, ceased being rational as well by metonymy (correction of a brook = destruction of the biotopes = nonsense) as by metaphor (way of crane = dehumanization = false route). The regional one, the vernacular one, particularisms ceased being passeists; they emergent with current and assert the future. BERQUE A., Médiance of mediums in landscapes, Montpellier, GIP-Recluse, 1990,163 p.
“By definition, the point of view of the médiance rejects any installation going to against direction of the medium where it is carried out; i.e. any installation which would neglect:
- a) the historico-ecological tendency of this medium.
- b) feelings tested with regard to this medium by the company which lives it.
- c) significances attached to this medium by this same company.
- the pet peeve from the point of view of the médiance, it is thus, obviously, the more or less international expert with the armor-plated convictions, with its harnessing of receipts pass key thus moved where that it applies them That is not installation, it is removal of territory These removers are not only deaf and blind, irresponsible with the direction where they play, naively or cynically, the sorcerer's apprentices on the back of the populations and the ecosystems; they move with the direction where they déraisonnent. BERQUE A., Médiance of mediums in landscapes, Montpellier, GIP-Recluse, 1990,163 p.
- a) the historico-ecological tendency of this medium.
Principles of installation
In France, where town and country planning is conceived and carried out by the national State, the geographer Jacques Levy distinguishes " four attitudes opposite city and installation in France" :
the Physiocrats, whose logic of action is the Corporatisme and the value founder is the uneven lack of differentiation
Étatistes, whose logic of action is the Dirigisme and the value founder is the levelling lack of differentiation
the Urbanophiles, whose logic of action is carried by the Acteurs, and for which the value founder of this action is levelling differentiation (Levy, 2003).
Among the principles of installation, the Polycentrisme, the idea that a territory must be organized around several poles, is one of recurring. Thus the implementation of the policy of town and country planning will coincide with the dedication of an installation fordist of the territory: the administrative institutions lately created, and in particular those of DATAR (in 1963), will be used as political and administrative guarantee with the “development in cascade” (economic theory inspired of the development poles of François Perroux). This development in cascade passes a reinforcement of the urban reinforcement (plane Ve), with the institution of eight Metropolises of balances as from 1964. They are cities alone like groups of cities in networks: Lille - Roubaix - Tourcoing, Metz - Nancy, Strasbourg, Nantes - Saint-Nazaire, Lyon - Saint-Etienne - Grenoble, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Marseilles, and of the regional centres of full exercises (Rennes, Nice, Dijon, Clermont-Ferrand) which will accommodate large equipment and heavy infrastructures in order to radiate on the medium-sized cities of their regional environment.
Experiments of town and country planning to the variable impacts
The first experiments were very few and were illustrated by their transitory or limited character as the National plan of town and country planning of 1957 until is installation a strategy of great scale (see higher the role of the DATAR under the period gaullienne).
More recently, the abandonment of the Plan (that of 1993 will not be applied) confirms the abandonment of a strategy of national width for the Territory with great “T”. The State then affirms its role in sectoral fields or more targeted territorialement (tendency started as of the beginning of the year 1980 with the districts of the Politique of the city, the rural deep one, and the industrial basins in reconversion).
Except the information system strategic plans of road infrastructures and railway approvals by two decrees of April 1st, 1992, on the basis of law of orientation on the inland transports of December 30th, 1982, let us retain the law of orientation of February 4th, 1995 (Law Pasqua) which envisaged the development of a national diagram of installation and development of the excessively ambitious territory and quickly enlized. The flagship measures still into force today remain:
new procedure of revision of the Information system strategic plan of the area Ile-de-France (SDRIF), and Diagrams of adjustment of Corsica and the areas of overseas;
territorial Directive of installation (DTA) of the article L 111-1-1 of the code of town planning;
the regional Diagrams of installation and development of the territory (SRADT), taken again like the Countries, by the Law Voynet.
The new territorial organization of the years 1990: country and intercommunality
1995 mark the beginning of a revival of the territorial policies by the national State: while arriving at the head of the ministry for the interior and the town and country planning under the government of Edouard Balladur (1993-1995), the gaullist Charles Pasqua promises “a great debate”. This great debate leads to the vote of the LOADT of February 4th, 1995, which devotes the geographical entity of the Pays. This revival of the territorial policies of the years 1990, difficult, will be consolidated by the law of orientation for the installation and the sustainable development of the territory (Loi Voynet) of June 25th, 1999 and by the relative law with the reinforcement and the simplification of the procedures of inter-commune co-operation (law Chevènement) of July 12th, 1999 (see the article Intercommunalité). The territorial approach of sustainable development from now on is taken into account in the public policies, in particular within the framework of the new generation of the plan contracts State-area 2000-2006 (through “the territorial shutter”).
Diagrams of collective services
Decree 2002-560 of April 16th, 2001 approved eight diagrams of sectoral collective services: Higher education, Culture, Health, Information and communication, Transport S, energy, Sport and natural spaces and rural. To note: the two multimode diagrams of collective services of transport (travellers and goods) were repealed by ordinance 2005-654 of June 8th, 2005. This device, envisaged by the Law Voynet of June 25th, 1999, constitutes an attempt at Planification strategic main road, only partially successful.
The development of the diagrams concerns the State but within the framework a dialog with the Local government agencies, the Professional organizations, the associations and the other organizations contributing to town and country planning. Once worked out, the project is subjected to opinion on the levels national and regional, to which are added specific consultations (the list not being in any event restrictive). The heaviness of this process unquestionably constitutes the first of its disadvantages; the time (unrealistic) of December 31st, 1999 was thus not respected and the plan contracts State-area were signed before the finalization of the diagrams which were to however be used to them as a basis. A problem Subsidiaire related to the multiplication of the consultations lies in the rigidity of the adopted document, which cannot be any more substantially modified without new consultations. An obstacle which could be usefully surmounted by the adoption of the diagrams by the Parlement (as it was the case in the law Pasqua).
Second disadvantage of the device set up: the Decentralization by DATAR of the development of the diagrams, which led to an important heterogeneity, in spite of the efforts authorized by the Delegation for the definition of common doctrines.
The diagrams have as an aim “to state” the “objectives” which “translate” the “strategic choices of the policy of installation and sustainable development of the territory for the twenty next years”. They cannot go down on a level from detail which would make them lose this strategic nature. In addition, these documents are not only diagrams of infrastructure; they also aim at defining the principles of organization and evolution of the collective services. Two types of diagrams were elaborate:
- of the forecasts or the scenarios intended to clarify the operated policy options (e.g. the diagram relating to higher education is a “joining” of the various plan contracts);
- of real definitions of the objectives of the public intervention and the means for their implementation.
As for the contents of the diagrams, also arose the question of the respect of the prerogatives of the territorial collectivities by a document prepared by the State in fields sometimes largely decentralized. It was understood that the diagrams could “support”, “encourage” or “invite” but not force the local government agencies. It does not remain about it less than the decisions taken by the State in its field of competence, have necessarily an influence on the decisions taken by the communities (e.g. transport).
With regard to the effect of the diagrams, it is understood that only the sufficiently precise provisions are likely to have prescriptive effects (EC, 1999, Rouquette and others ). Even if this condition would be met, the effect of the diagrams is strongly circumscribed by the legislator: they are indeed opposable only with the SRADT (which do not have for the moment of true legal effect). The public authorities are simply compelled with an obligation of “taking into account”; however, the judge draws only from the limited consequences of this legal report/ratio. It is advisable nevertheless to moderate this report:
- Certains diagrams is opposable under the terms of specific measures (under PARCELLED OUT, the diagram transport is opposable with the DUP, authorizations of town planning, concessions of endigage or tools, etc);
- In addition, the judge should regard them as pertaining to the category of the “documents of planning” aimed to article R. 121-3 of the code of town planning and on the basis of which can be stopped projects of general interest that the State can impose on the territorial collectivities.
- the inventories contained in certain diagrams make it possible moreover to underline the national interest of certain equipment or sites (“situation report on the natural heritage” annexed to the diagram of natural spaces and rural: without having of direct range, it could be used by the judge within the framework of the control of measurements calling into question of protections of spaces and richnesses thus listed).
In spite of the difficulties related to their installation, the diagrams will find of not to doubt their place within the framework of the project concerning to the revival of decentralization. It was indeed not easily possible that new transfers of competence were approved without the State installing the instruments guaranteeing the coherence of the public policies and the social and territorial coherence of the country. Some reforms are however unquestionably necessary:
- to clarify the contents so as to better distinguish what concerns the evaluation and the forecast and which is about the standard and of the regulation;
- to specify, and certainly to reinforce, legal consequences of the diagrams: there is an essential condition if one wants to make diagrams of the instruments of framing of transferred competences;
- to require an approval by the Parliament.
The emergence of territories of project
A territory of project is defined as “the economic space, social and physical on which a project of territory is worked out. Organized, it is in capacity of contractualiser on a global project with the authorities in charge of installation and the territorial development. This name relates to in a priority but nonexhaustive way the Countries, agglomerations, regional natural parks and networks of cities” (definition given by association Entreprises Territories and Development).
Article 2 of the Loi Voynet of June 25th, 1999 states that “the policy of installation and sustainable development of the territory” is based on a certain number of strategic choices among which “the local development” whose organization is specified with subparagraph 2: “the local development, organized within the framework of the basins of employment and based on the complementarity and the solidarity of the rural and urban territories. It supports within Pays having a cohesion geographical, historical, cultural, economic and social the implementation of the potentialities of the territory while being based on a strong inter-commune co-operation and the initiative and the participation of the local actors”.
In the same way, the law of agricultural orientation of July 9th, 1999 envisages the realization of a Document of management of agricultural and forest space (DGEAF) in each department. This document “to carry to knowledge” identifies the stakes agricultural, forest, environmental and landscape and makes it possible to have an overall picture of all the parameters important to take into account for a decision-making aid on the management of the territories. It contributes with the definition of policies and the use of tools adapted to the stakes of the territories.
The new generation of the plan contracts State-area (2000-2006) devotes the Territorialisation of the public policies: more than ever concerted development, the assertion of new priorities (employment, solidarity, sustainable development), the logic of project of territory, the extension of the field of the contractualisation, the increased importance attached to the follow-up and the evaluation, are as many innovations.
Intercommunality: a silent revolution
The relative law with the reinforcement and the simplification of the inter-commune co-operation of July 12th, 1999 (law Chevènement) devotes the Intercommunalité project. It organizes the inter-commune co-operation according to three levels:
the the Community of communes (in rural environment)
the the Community of agglomeration (more than 50.000 inhabitants)
the Urban community (more than 500.000 inhabitants)
Today, more than 85% of the French population lives under the mode of the intercommunality, which constitutes a silent revolution on the whole of the territory: The 162 Communities of agglomeration were create in 5 years, which goes beyond the forecasts of the report/ratio of Pierre Mauroy entitled “Refonder the local public action” (2000) which in addition recommended the election of the Community advisers to the Universal direct suffrage.
Years 2000: installation by the research of competitivenessThe policy of town and country planning preserves its vocation to reduce the inequalities between the territories. It places for example among its objectives the access of the greatest possible part of the national territory to networks high-flow.
An essential topic of the current policy of town and country planning is however the development of the “competitiveness” of the territories and the research of “excellence”. It is thus a question of developing “poles of competivity” which would allow territories identified well to acquire a central role in a field particular to the national scales, even world. The poles of rural excellence must, as for them, to support the development of the rural regions.
These actions are impelled at the national level by the inter-ministerial committees of installation and competitiveness of the territories (CIACT) and are managed by the interdepartmental Délégation with the installation and the competitiveness of the territories (DIACT), successor of the DATAR. The contractual devices such as the plan contracts State-area, transformed into “contracts of project” as from 2007, remain the base of the dialog between the State and the territorial collectivities.
The DIACT intervenes mainly through the funds national of installation and development of territory (FNADT), created in 1995, for an amount envisaged of 267 million euros in 2007. Town and country planning relates to also other ministries and actions: funds national of development of companies (FNDE), transport policy (especially railway), management of the rural areas, actions in favor of SME, higher education.
Towards a European town and country planning?
Town and country planning still does not concern the Compétence S of the European Union. However, this subject is not foreign with the concerns of the Member States. With thus adopted, at the time of the abstract council of the Ministers for the town and country planning of Potsdam of May 11th 1999, a Development scheme of Community Space (SDEC). This document fixes main trends as regards town and country planning without however having legal authenticity and a prescriptive character.
See also: Regional policy of the European Union
Christelle Alvergne, François Taulelle, Of the room in Europe. New policies of town and country planning , PUF, 2002
- Daniel Béhar, Philippe Estèbe, " Can the State have a project for the territory? " , in annals of urban research , n°82, 1999
- Daniel Béhar, Philippe Estèbe, " Town and country planning: A setting in perspective" , in the State of France 2005-2006 , 17th edition, the Discovery, May 2005
- Augustin Berque, Médiance of mediums in landscapes , GIP- Recluse, Montpellier, 1990,163 p.
- Felix Damette, Jacques Scheibling, the French territory, permanences and changes , Hatchet Higher, Square coll Geography, Paris, 1995, republication 1999,2003
- Jean-François Gravel, Paris and the desert French , Flammarion, Paris, 1947
- Jean-Paul Lacaze, town and country planning , Flammarion, coll Dominos, 1995
- Jacques Levy, Town and country planning , in the Dictionary of the Geography and the space of the company , Belin, 2003, pp.64-68
- Patrice Caro, Olivier Dart, Jean-Claude Daumas, the policy of town and country planning , Root, logics and results, university Presses of Rennes, 2002,360 pages.
- Town and country planning
- Town planning
- urban Economy
- List of the French Ministers for Town and country planning
- space Economy
- economic Geography
- the European program Corine Land Cover
- Local development or territorial Development
- space Planning or regional Planning
- Regional policy of the European Union
- Intercommunalité | numerical Regrouping
- Institute of town and country planning and environment of the university of Rheims (training in Town and country planning)
- regional Diagram of transport
- town and country planning: a historical approach (Doc. Embassies of France).
- Site of the DIACT (ex DATAR)
- Site of the observatory of the territories
- Site of the Parliament of the communities of France (ADCF)
- Site of Companies Territories and Development (ETD)
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