The United Provinces are the name which the seven provinces of the north of the took Seventeen Provinces or Spanish Netherlands in 1581 until creation by the French of the Batavian République and of the Royaume of Holland.
The July 2nd 1581, by the Act of $the Hague, these provinces, then under the authority of the king of Spain, took their independence and constituted a Fédération. The causes of this secession were the will of autonomy with regard to the religious king and problem, the inhabitants of these provinces having mainly chosen the Protestant Réforme . Since 1586, the General states of the United Provinces ceased seeking a new sovereign and the confederal union practically became a République.
- Holland, old county
- Zealand, old county
- Overijssel, old seigniory
- Plank, old seigniory
- Groningue, old seigniories of the city and the Ommelanden officially called “States of the city and the Ommelanden” ( Stadt in Land in Dutch)
- Gueldre, left the old duchy of Gueldre
- Utrecht, old seigniory (évêché).
Other cities and territories related to the Republic of the United Provinces and controls by the General states
- the County of Zutphen, city-state integrated into Gueldre.
- Maastricht, like Condominium with the Principality of Liege
- the county of Drenthe, a “province” without statute of Member State
- villages of “redemption”, some small villages close to Liege
- part of the semi-officially last septentrional Flanders under the influence of Zealand
- the septentrional Brabant (Breda then Wood-the-Duke after 1648 officially)
Political causes of the secession
See also: History of the United Provinces
Before 1581 the Netherlands consisted of duchies, counties, évêchés and others independent seigniories, the majority belonging to the Saint Germanic Roman Empire. They was about the Seventeen Provinces covered by the Pragmatic Sanction of Charles Quint.
By the marriage, the war or the sale, all these states finished in the hands of the Habsbourg S, the emperor Charles V and his son, Philippe II of Spain. In 1568, several provinces, carried out by Guillaume Silent the, revolt against the governor of the King with Brussels, the Pile cluster, because of its attempts at modernization and centralization of the structures, the high taxes and the persecution of Protestants. It was the beginning of the Guerre Eighty Year old.
In 1579, several septentrional provinces signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to be supported against the Spanish army. The Union of Utrecht is followed, in 1581, by the Oath of Abjuration (Act of $the Hague), the formal Abjuration of the king.
See also: Spanish Netherlands
The conflict with the king and his governor before 1581
- the the Council of the disorders of the Pile cluster of 1568
- the rising of 1572
- the Spanish Fury of 1576 with Antwerp
- the Pacification of Ghent of 1576
- the Union of Brussels 1577
- the Union of Arras and the Union of Utrecht in 1579
- the Act of $the Hague in 1581
The war against Spain (1581-1609)It is the most tormented period Guerre Eighty Year old between 1568 and 1648. A mediation of king de France allows the conclusion of the Trève Twelve Years of the April 9th 1609 between the Spain and the United Provinces.
United Provinces at XVIIe and the XVIIIe century
See also: History of the United Provinces
The 17th century is regarded as the century of gold of the United Provinces: the country is then with the head of a powerful colonial and commercial empire. The cities attract the adventurers and the workmen of all Europe. The reputation of tolerance and freedom makes of the United Provinces a intellectual and cultural hearth of first order.
PolicyThe independence of the seven United Provinces is definitively recognized by Spanish monarchy by the treated of Münster in 1648. The power of the Republic of the United Provinces will last during two centuries. At the 17th century, the United Provinces make several wars in England, which disputes to them the naval and commercial superiority in the North Sea. The United Provinces are also, as an enemy, of all the wars of Louis XIV; this one the threat in its desires to annex the Spanish Netherlands (current Belgium). It is in particular the case with Noordpeene, at the time of the Bataille of Peene, the April 11th 1677: the king of France sends his brother, Philippe of Orleans, to besiege Saint-Omer, only town of Artois still in the Spanish Netherlands; the coalition anti-Frenchwoman directed by the United Provinces (with Guillaume III of Orange itself to the head of the troops) is demolished; Saint-Omer falls into the tread. The Traité of Nimègue will in particular come to confirm this Dutch defeat.
The institutions of the United Provinces are those of a Federal republic: contrary to the majority of the other European States, the country is not directed by a king. The central institutions are relatively weak: the General states of the United Provinces are the assembly délibératrice. The Stathouder is the Head of State. Moreover, the large boarder deals with the external businesses. Essentially, the taxation rests on the indirect taxes.
The seven provinces have an high degree of autonomy: they lay out each one of their own institutions, such as the provincial states, a legislative assembly.
The municipalities themselves are jealous of their privileges and their prerogatives; they are directed by members of the local nobility and the large merchants.
Population and economyThe economic success of the United Provinces is not explained by its natural assets: they constitute a small territory, rather little populated compared to France. The territory was constituted gradually by new ground conquest on the North Sea. Most of the country makes up of polders of very low altitude. The United Provinces must be protected from the storms by dams which always do not prevent the floods. However, the country is well located between the Baltic and the English Channel. It benefits from the waterway and commercial of the Rhine.
The population of the United Provinces rises to approximately 2,5 million in the middle of the 17th century. They receive a strong immigration from Germany. The Iberian Jews and the Huguenots find refuge at the XVIIe century there.
Agriculture is very productive for the time: the market gardenings are spread around the cities and use large a quantity of manure. The industrial crops and speculative are developed (hemp, colza, hop, dyeing, tobacco, flax, etc). The cities make come from corn of banks of the Baltic. The herring fishing, with cod and the whale is also a dynamic sector. But especially, the United Provinces grow rich at the time modern thanks to the maritime trade. They dominate the trade Baltique at sea and form part of the Mediterranean networks. The economic prosperity and financial of the country also rests on the great maritime trade.
During the Eighty Year old War the United Provinces built a navy of war which could threaten Spain in its own ports and as far as America. The merchant fleet of the Company Dutchwoman of the Eastern Indies (VOC) and of the Compagnie Dutchwoman of the Western Indies (WIC) takes again the international business of the Spaniards. The United Provinces constitute a colonial empire in Asia (the West Indies, Ceylon, Malaysia) and in America (New Amsterdam, Surinam). The Dutch fleet attends the Japanese ports and threatens the Iberian possessions of South America.
CultureThe United Provinces were a cultural hearth of first order with XVIIe and XVIIIe centuries. This tolerant Republic accommodated all the religions then and supported individual freedoms. The French philosophers Pierre Bayle and Rene Descartes there worked and published a long time. Montesquieu admired this political model and made publish its Lettres Persians with Amsterdam in 1721.
The country has centers of edition and printing works (Amsterdam), of brilliant universities (especially Université of Leyde, founded in 1575). The 17th century sees to open out a Dutch painting famous and represented by Jan Vermeer (1632-1675), Rembrandt (1606-1669) and Frans Hals (1580-1666). The middle-class of businesses, the ship-owners and the aldermen place from the orders near these artists and are made build private mansions in the cities.
- Batavian History of the United Provinces
- Kingdom of Batavian Holland
- Kingdom of the Netherlands
- “the civilization of the " Century of or" in the Netherlands” by Christophe De Voogd, University lecturer with the Institute of political studies of Paris.
|Random links:||Violated Élizabeth de Cieszyn | Ground Polito | Work and heat | Ganesh Chaturthi | Match of the Cut of America 2007 | Vígríðr|