Ulysses (in Greek old Ὀδυσσεύς / Odusseús , in Latin Ulixes , then by deformation Ulysses ) is one of the most famous heroes of the Greek Mythologie. Wire of Laërte and Anticlée, he is married with Pénélope of which he has a son, Télémaque. He is famous for his mongrel (“intelligence crafty one”), which returns its council very appreciated in the Trojan War in which he takes part. It is still by the mongrel that it is distinguished in the long tour which it knows with the return of Troy, sung by Homère in its Odyssée .
The death of Ulysses following a prophecy, in its old age, traditionally marks the end of the age of the heroes, and thus the end of the chronological account of the Greek Mythologie.
One of the heroes of Iliade
Persuaded by the arguments of Ménélas and Agamemnon, it leaves Ithaque, island from which he is the king, to take share with the Trojan War in the Achaean camp - whereas a prophecy predicted a return full with obstacles to him. His/her son Télémaque is yet only one young child. According to other versions, it is bound by the oath of Tyndare, obliging the applicants unhappy with the hand of Helene to help that which would carry it. Ulysses then simulates the madness to avoid leaving, plowing a field with an attachment made up of an ox and a horse. The trick is ventilated by Palamède. Indeed, it will place the Télémaque young person in the middle of the field which his/her father plows, who, not to wound it, its clearness reveals. Ulysses is then constrained to join the Greek camp with the head of twelve naves.
In Iliade , it is represented like a wise, favorite king of Athéna, and skilful speaker. It occupies, so a place of honor in the council of the kings. At the time of the one of these assemblies, he punishes the churl Thersite, who claims to dispute the word of the kings, by striking it of his stick of command. Considered to be worthy of confidence by the other kings, it is charged by Agamemnon with recovering Briséis near Achille, after having in vain pled near this last cut off in its tent. It is also him which is charged with the embassies: with Ménélas, it goes to Troy to negotiate the return of Helene, removed by Pâris. Friend of the young warrior Diomède, it accompanies it in the capture by the spy Dolon. According to a cyclic legend , they also conceal both the Palladium.
After the death of Achilles, it overcomes in duel Ajax wire of Télamon, and gains the weapons of Péléide. Lastly, he is the author of the stratagem of the Trojan horse, told in the Odyssey and the cyclic epopees.
The hero of the Odyssey
The Trojan War finished, it wanders on the sea because of the ire of Poséidon. Its wanderings include/understand in particular the episode of the sirens pushing, by means of their songs enchanters, the ships towards the reefs (Ulysses, warned by Circé, request with its crew to stop the ears with wax; as for him, it is made attach to the mast of the boat); that of the fight against the Cyclops Polyphème, a son of Poséidon with which it bursts the eye after having enivré it; that of the nymph Calypso keeping it on its island lasting eight years, having promised to him immortality; that of the Lotophages and that of the Circé magician, known to transform the men into animals.
Country of the Cimmérien S, it goes down to the Enfers (it is the episode of the Nekuia), where it meets the wandering shades of many heroes whom it côtoyés: Agamemnon, Achilles become the king of the world of the shades, Ajax large the… At the end of 20 years, therefore, it finds its fatherland, his wife Pénélope and its son Télémaque.
The etymology of the name is not known. Homère attaches it to the verb ὀδυσάω / odusáô , “to hate, be annoyed”. Thus, with song XIX of the Odyssey , Autolycos declares:
“As I arrive here annoyed against many people,
men and women on the ground which nourishes the men,
that this child names himself Angry. ”
It acts however more than one word game that of a true etymology.
Lastly, the name of Ulysses gives rise to some derivatives: Ὀδυσσεία / Odusseía ( the Odyssey ), Ὀδὐσσειον / Odússeion (sanctuary of Ulysses) and Ὀλισσεῖδαι / Olisseĩdai , name of a Phratrie with Thèbes and Argos.
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