The Ukraine (Україна) is a Pays of Europe of the East, 2nd larger of Europe. It has an outlet on the Black Sea in the south, and of the borders with the Russia in the east, the Bielorussia in north and the Poland, the Slovakia, the Romania, the Hungary and the Moldavie in the west.
See also: History of the Ukraine
The Ukraine was the hearth of the first Eastern Slavic State, rested by Scandinavians, the Rous' of Kiev (called in the Western writings Ruthénie), which during Xe and XIe centuries was the largest State and most powerful of Europe.
At the 9th century, Kiev was taken with the Khazars by the Varègue (Eastern Viking) Oleh the Wise one. Located on lucrative commercial roads, Kiev quickly became the center of a powerful Slavic State, called " Rous" or Ruthénie (the name d'" Ukraine" , which means " go frontalière" in Russian, is due to the expansion of Moscovie, well later). At the 11th century, the Ruthénie was geographically the vastest State of Europe. Into 988, under the reign of Vladimir Large the, a Christian missionary, Cyrille, converts the aristocracy kiévienne (especially Varègue) and the majority of the population. Under the reign of Iaroslav Wise the, the prestige of the State kiévien reaches its apogee: it extends from the Baltique to the Black Sea and from the confluence of the Oka with the the Volga until the Carpates septendrionales. Iaroslav was a large builder, it is him which made build celebrates it Cathédrale Holy-Sophie in Kiev, and a large legislator. The right, education, architecture and art kiévien will know an impressive revival under its reign. But to the 12th century, of the conflicts among the lords of Ruthénie led the State kiévien to the decline: it is divided into various principalities. Kiev was ransacked by the principality of Vladimir (1169) during the fight to be able it between the princes and later by the Coumans and Tatars Mongolian at 12th and the 13th century. Consequently, the principalities ruthenes had to recognize the sovereignty of the Mongols. The Mongolian authority was very cruel, in particular out of penal matter, and the people often fled towards other countries like the Poland, the Hungary or the Moldavie.
During the 14th century, the Poles and the Lithuanians fought the Mongolian invader and finally all the septentrional Ukraine passed under the authority of the Poland and the Lithuania. Tatars kept only the littoral of the Black Sea and the Crimea; however, of 1412 to 1484, Poland reached the Black Sea on the side of Otchakiv (towards current Odessa).
It is during this lituano-Polish domination, as from the 15th century, that the Cosaques were formed, of the peasants orthodoxe ruthenes which refused the constraint and the assimilation with the Poles Catholique S. the kingdom of Poland tolerates them and uses them against Tatars, then, as from the 16th century, against the Othoman Turks, become suzerains of the tatars of the Crimea.
Weakened by the Mongolian internal quarrels and invasions , the Ruthénie was gradually integrated into the Grand-Duché of Lithuania and finally, at the 16th century, in the lituano-Polish Confédération.
In the middle of the 17th century, following a popular revolt of the Cossacks of the Register and Sich, as well as Ukrainian peasants, an Ukrainian autonomous State, the Hetmanat cossack, was established and will perdura during more than one century in spite of the pressure of the Muscovite invaders attracted by the rich and fertile grounds. Following the treaty of Androussovo, it was divided into two, one under protectorate Polish, the other under Moscovite protectorate which will perdura during more than one century. the territory of the Cosaques Zaporogues of Sich was first of all managed jointly by the two sovereigns.
Catherine Large the, empress of Russia, removed the Hetmanat in the middle of the XVIII century and destroyed Sich in last the XVIII century quarter. The division of Poland enabled him to practically recover all the Ukraine of Right Bank, except for Galicie, last under control of the Empire Austro Hungarian.
The Ukrainian culture knew a rebirth at the 19th century. Moscow was not long in reacting and, in the 1876, prohibited Ukrainian language in the schools, the newspapers and the literature. In 1892, Kiev counted nearly a half-million inhabitants.
After the Revolution of October of 1917, the Ukraine was briefly independent until 1920. Ukrainian power station Split proclaimed on November 20th, 1917 the Popular republic of Ukraine and on January 25th, 1918 its separation of with Russia. The first Head of Ukrainian State became V.K. Vinnitchenko.
To fight the Red Army which controlled part of the Ukraine then, Split it central sought the support of the Germans who organized a coup d'etat and reversed the government of Vinnitchenko, putting at his place P.P. Skoropadski. But Germany lost the First World War and Skoropadski, deprived of any support, was reversed by the popular movement, was guided by Simon Petlioura. Finally, on December 14th, 1918, the Popular republic of Ukraine was restored with V.K. Vinnitchenko.
The Ukraine was invaded by the Red Army and brought back in the Russian bosom. The old “attic” of Russia tsarist, become a republic marionette, continued to supply the Soviet urban centres. December 30th, 1922, the USSR was born from the treaty which joined together RSFSR, the Bielorussia, the Ukraine and the Transcaucasia. In the conflict which opposed the Communists of the center (Moscow) and the Communist parties national, it is the center which carried it and imposed a federation.
When Stalin started his industrial revolution towards the end of the year 1920, the Ukraine became one of the essential sources of its financing. The years of industrialization were remembered by the construction of the largest hydro-electric power station of Europe on the Dniepr (the DnieproGuES), which contributed to the electrification of the Republic, as well as an important development of the large field and metallurgical, the Donbass.
After a short period of ukrainisation (countryside known as of “ korenizatsiya ”) in the years 1920, resulting in the return to the source language in the publications, the reopening of the schools and the universities with an Ukrainian teaching in and the promotion of the national executives, Stalin did not spare the efforts to repress the least sign of an Ukrainian national alarm clock, interpreted like a rejection of the capacity Bolchevik and a threat with the integrity of the the USSR.
Under Stalin, a genocidary famine caused artificially by the Collectivization forced peasants and the requisition of the majority of their harvests, policy decided by Stalin, would have made between 3 and 7 million victims in Ukraine of 1932-33, whereas this area was most prolific from an agricultural point of view of all the the USSR; the Ukrainians call it “Holodomor” or “the extermination by the hunger”. According to certain analysts, this famine entered within the showing framework of its operations of repression of the people of resistance to the Stalinist mode (in particular by inclinations of independence) (ex: Tchetchenes, Germans of the Volga).
Executions and deportations of Ukrainian intellectuals are orchestrated by his mode lasting the purgings of 1937-1939: a few million Ukrainians is carried out or sent towards of the Soviet camps of work. Moreover, the Kremlin which preached the atheism of state attacks with the religious symbols, of which churches and cathedrals while destroying more than 250 buildings.
After the invasion of Poland in 1939 by the German and Soviet troops, certain Polish areas with strong Ukrainian minority were annexed by the Soviet Union and were incorporated within the Western Ukraine.
In spring 1941, the Ukraine was quickly invaded by the German armies. During two years, the exactions of the Nazis were terrible. Massacres of thousands of Ukrainians, systematic plundering of the natural resources and agricultural, drives out with the partisans with hundreds of villages flarings which see their massacred population.
April 28th, 1943, the high command of Wehrmacht announces the creation of the division S galicie consisted of Ukrainian volunteers; the historians estimate that more than 220.000 Ukrainians engaged with dimensions German forces during the second world war (Polizei, U.V.V, Hiwi S or Waffen-SS). In 1944, the Red Army released from the Nazis and reconquered most of the Ukraine. At the end of the war, the losses Ukrainian rise to 8 million people including 1,377 million Soviet soldiers of Ukrainian nationality (15,9% of the total losses of the Red Army), which makes the second group of it after the Russians. As for the independence , they continued their resistance armed against the USSR until 1954.
It is only into 1989 that the liberalization of the Soviet mode and the release of the political prisoners made it possible to the Ukrainians to be organized to defend their rights. In 1989, the Ukrainian National movement, Roukh, were created. At the time of the elections of March 1990, the Ukrainian parties of the democratic block then obtained approximately 25% of the seats at the Parliament. Under the influence of the democratic deputies, the Parliament adopted, on July 16th, 1990, the Declaration on the political sovereignty of the Ukraine. It was the first step towards the complete independence of the Ukraine. This one was proclaimed on August 24th, 1991 and was confirmed by the referendum of December 1st, 1991: 90,5% voters voted for independence. The following week, the USSR ceased existing following the dissolution decided during the meeting with Minsk of the leaders Russian, Ukrainian and Belorusse.
The Ukraine became one of the member-founders of the Communauté of the independent States.
See also: Geography of the Ukraine
The Ukraine is a country of Europe of the East. It divides its land borders with seven countries bordering: in the west the Poland, the Slovakia and the Hungary; in south-west the Romania and the Moldavie; in the east and the North-East the Russia; in north the Bielorussia. The country measures 1 316 kilometers of are in west and 893 kilometers of north in the south, for an total surface area of 603 550 km ².
It is a relatively flat country, with fertile grounds in its center, which enables him to have a productive agriculture. The mountains of the Ukraine are in fact the final parts of the reliefs of Central Europe and the Mediterranean.
- Carpates, with the Hoverla which culminates with 2.061m, which makes of it more the high summit of division carpatienne.
- the the Crimea has an impressive solid mass, culminating with more 1.500m, and being thrown directly in the Black Sea.
The Ukrainian mountain is made up of the Carpates in Western Ukraine and of the mountains the Crimea/mount. Hoverla, the culminating point of Ukraine, reached 2 061 meters. The major part of the center of the country is a fertile plain, started from that which covers Eastern Europe.
The Ukraine also profits from an extended river system, composed mainly by the Dniepr (Dnipro), the Dniester (Dnister), the Western Boug, southernmost Boug, and the Donets in the east. The the Danube (Dounay) mark the border enters the Ukraine and Romania, in the extreme south-west.
The climate of the major part of the Ukraine is continental with cold winters and hot summers (Mediterranean only on the southern part of the Crimea). The average temperatures with Kharkov in Eastern Ukraine are of approximately 7°C in January and 20°C in July. Precipitations go approximately 750 mm per annum in north to approximately 250 mm in the south.
See also: Areas of the Ukraine
The Ukraine is divided of 24 areas ( oblasti , singular - Oblast ), an autonomous republic ( avtonomna respublika ) in the Crimea, and two municipalities ( mista , singular - misto ) with a particular legal status, Kiev and Sébastopol.
See also: Political of the Ukraine
The Republic of Ukraine is a parliamentary Démocratie where the presidential capacities are wide (though recently reduced with the profit of the Parliament). The President of the Republic is elected by the universal direct suffrage for a five years mandate, renewable once. It appoints the Prime Minister with the agreement of the Verkhovna Rada.
The Parlement ( Verkhovna Split or more simply Rada ) is composed of 450 deputies elected by the universal direct suffrage for a four years mandate.
Whereas the presidency was taken by Leonid Koutchma, old a Apparatchik of the Communist party, considered as corrupted and dependant on the groups gangster, the last presidential election took place the October 31st and November 21st 2004. Following suspicions of fraud and with the popular pressure, more or less spontaneous, Orange revolution, the Supreme court cancelled the result of the second who gave victorious old to the Prime Minister Viktor Ianoukovitch on Viktor Iouchtchenko. Finally, it is the latter, playing the chart of Europe and the Libéralisme, which carried it although its challenger maintained his solids positions in the east and the south of the country Russian speakers and Russophiles. Viktor Iouchtchenko lends oath in January 2005.
It then designates as Prime Minister discussed popular heroin Ioulia Tymochenko, businesswoman entered in policy of the time of president Koutchma. On bottom of reciprocal charges of corruption, the September 8th 2005 president Viktor Iouchtchenko dismissed the government of the Prime Minister Ioulia Timochenko, naming in its place Iouri Ekhanourov, governor of the area of Dnipropetrovsk.
- the Party of the Areas of pro-Russian Viktor Ianoukovitch obtained 32,12% of voice (186 elected officials);
- the Block of Ioulia Tymochenko (GOAL) - 22,27% of voice (129 elected officials);
- the Presidential party Our Ukraine - 13,94% of voice (81 elected officials);
- the Socialist party - 5,67% (33 elected officials);
- the Communist party - 3,66% of voice (21 elected officials).
The other parties could not obtain the 3% minimum of voice guaranteeing of the seats in Rada.
The parliamentary coalition “orange” (Our Ukraine - Block of Ioulia Tymochenko (the ILO) - Socialist party) not easily made up after more than two months of debates, burst on July 7th 2006, following the surprised defection of the Socialist Alexandre Moroz elected president of the Parliament with the support of the opposition pro-Russian. This defection involved the rallying of the Socialists to the Parti formation the Areas - Communists and to the creation of a new majority alliance (240 seats out of 450), this time directed by the ex-first minister Viktor Ianoukovitch.
Following the talks between Iouchtchenko and started Ianoukovitch on July 20th 2006, the two former rivals agreed on the signature of the pact of the national unit ( Universal ), which marks the political concessions on the two sides (inter alia, the tender with the referendum of the question of the entry of the country in NATO). The group of the Block Ioulia Tymochenko, formerly an ally of “Our Ukraine”, which left the seat of the Verkhovna Rada on July 20th by requiring the behavior of the anticipated legislatures, did not sign Universal. It thus becomes the official opposition.
The August 4th 2006 the Ukrainian Parliament named the leader of the Party of the areas Viktor Ianoukovitch at the post of Ukrainian Prime Minister. The candidature of M.Ianoukovitch was supported by 271 votes, for 226 necessary.
At the time of the anticipated legislative elections of September 30th, 2007, the results would be the following:
- the Party of the areas of the First outgoing minister Viktor Ianoukovitch would have gained 35,2% of the votes. Achieved examination, it adds up 34,18%
- the Timochenko Block is credited with 31,5% of the voices. Made examination, it adds up 30,81%
- the party Our Ukraine-Self-defense, of outgoing president Viktor Iouchtchenko, would arrive rather far with 13,4%. Made examination, it arrives indeed third with 14,28% of the voices.
- the Communist party obtained 5,37%
- the Litvine block obtained 3,98%
The other parties did not cross the threshold of the 3% necessary to be represented at the Parliament
See also: Economy of the Ukraine
The Ukraine has an economy diversified, but still dependant on the industries established at the time Soviet. It is a free Marché emergent, where the growth was with 2 digits in the last few years, until the Orange revolution. Its natural resources turn much around agriculture (sunflower, nut, beets sugar…) and the mining resources (Iron, Steel, Uranium, Potash…). The economy is characterized by a Hyperinflation and economic outputs still a little weak.
From the commercial point of view, its principal economic partner remains Russia (economy of Russia), even if the Ukraine endeavors to turn to the countries of the European Union geographically close to it. The country plays a big role in the European gas distribution.
The national currency, the Hryvnia, was introduced in 1996 and made it possible to reduce the hyperinflation which reigned then, making it possible the country finally to turn over in a phase of growth of the GDP in the Années 2000, after 8 consecutive years of Déclin according to the bursting of the USSR.
In 2001, the government made the decision to accelerate the process of adhesion to the World Trade organization (OMC), however the results as good as were not envisaged. The objective is to return in OMC in February 2007, the only country being opposed to it being the Kyrgyzstan.
The political crisis of 2006, following the long Prime Minister nomination, could have affected the Ukrainian economy. The investors were not really frightened and the economy resisted well. The growth of the GDP in July 2006 was of 9 % compared in July 2005, the industrial production increased, the banking sector extended, thanks to the arrival of European banks.
EnvironmentThe country was marked by the Catastrophe of Tchernobyl, even if the repercussions primarily related to the Bielorussia.
As an energy nodal center for Eastern Europe, the accident risk related to an energy infrastructure remains high.
See also: Culture of the Ukraine
See also: Demography of the Ukraine
Population (census 2001, it acts of an ethnic distribution, on a declaratory basis which corresponds neither to had nationality, nor with the native tongues, in the “others” are also religious minorities and nonethnic like the Jews):
- “Ukrainian”: 77,8% “Russian”
- : 17,3%
- “others”: 4,9%
The Ruthènes in Ukraine are considered as Ukrainians, and are consequently not indexed like a separate nationality. There would be thus 75,8% of Ukrainians and approximately 2% of Ruthènes, according to the estimates. More than one million Ukrainians left their country since 1991 with for privileged destinations: The United States, Canada, Israel, European Union (in particular Portugal). The country counts also important a Muslim community estimated at 1,5 million personnes.Info with sourcer: calculations starting from bond Ci below gives: 575.000 maximum (except if 1.000.000 of Moslem Russian) . --> The Ukrainian is the official language but thirteen other minority languages are recognized - of which the Russian dominating in the east of the country, Odessa and in the Crimea and included/understood by the majority of the Ukrainians. The Université of State Tarass-Chevtchenko is the principal university of the country.
The two great religions of the country are the Orthodoxie and the Eastern Catholic church (also called Eastern Églises uniates). The Protestants and Jews are also represented. The Orthodoxe Church is the religion most practiced in the country.
The Ukrainian Cuisine is a big part of the national culture. Special dishes are prepared with Easter or Christmas. The Ukrainians use various kinds of Sauce S, of Poisson S and of Fromage S. the Pain is an essential component with any meal. The variety of the dishes is very required. The Bortsch is a traditional soup been useful in entry. It is containing beets and of vegetables (Haricot S, cabbage, Carotte S, Concombre S, potatoes, Oignon S or Tomate S) and of meat (Poulet, Porc or Bœuf).
The vareniki (Вареники) is a popular traditional Ukrainian dish and very anchored in the Ukrainian kitchen. Resembling Raviolis, they are however bulkier and very similar to the pierogi (their Polish equivalent). Their joke is generally made up of potato, but there are many variations: cheese, mushroom, cabbage, even several combinations between them.
TransportThe majority of the Ukrainian airline companies, approved by IATA, sector under development full, appear in the following list: List of the Ukrainian companies.
See also: Project: Ukraine,
- official Gate of the Presidency of the Ukraine
- official Gate of the government
- Ukraine: between Russia and Occident by Caroline Leguy.
- Page of the CIA World Fact Book
- Web-Forum Ukraine-France
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