Formerly a Soviet republic until in 1991, it carried the name of Turkménie or officially the Soviet Socialist République of Turkménistan (in Turkmène Cyrillique: ТүркменистанСоветСоциалистикРеспубликасы, ТүркменистанССР).
See also: History of Turkménistan
The Histoire of Turkménistan extends over several millenia, since 5000 years old archaeological vestiges were discovered on the territory of the country.
See also: Political of Turkménistan
Saparmyrat Nyýazow was the chief of the Soviet socialist republic of Turkménistan between 1985 and 1991. From 1991 with its in December 2006 death, it directed the country in an authoritative way and did not tolerate any opposition. With its death it is replaced by interim by the Deputy Prime Minister Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow.
A very important worship of its personality is still in place, one finds his face almost everywhere in the country, of banknotes to the bottles of Vodka. It is renamed Türkmenbaşy (or in French the “Chief of Turkmènes” , to pronounce " turk-carry out-Ba-chi"). The national festival corresponds to the birthday of the president, the February 19th. A statue of him, gilded with the fine gold, rotates in the capital Achgabat so that its face is always turned towards the sun.
Turkménistan belongs to the Communauté of the independent States (CEI). In August 2005, Turkménistan decides to become a simple “associated member”.
The legislative power is exerted by the Council of the People, an assembly of 2 500 members.
Following the death of Niazov, the Council of the People fixes the date of the presidential election at the February 11th 2007. The Constitution turkmene is in addition modified by the Council to make it possible to the president by interim Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow to arise. Big favorite, it is elected with 89% of the voices vis-a-vis five applicants. It is officially invested the February 14th 2007, lending oath on the Coran and the Ruhnama , delivers writes by its predecessor.
Human rightsAmnesty International drew a very black picture of the situation in Turkménistan in 2003, and in particular was pessimistic on a possible positive development because of:
- tacit approval of the the United States and the Russia to the capacity turkmene, thanks to the non-interference of the country at its neighbors and his absence of military and territorial claims;
- the presence of gas reserves naturalness attracting of the Western and Russian investments very advantageous;
- a relative disinterest of the Western mediums, from the geographical location of the country and its weak demography;
- a tracked and muzzled political opposition;
- the absence of independent interior press.
The situation of the Human rights in Turkménistan is always critical in 2006. The dictatorial mode , one of the more autocratic in the world, restricted a great number of freedoms. According to Human Rights Watch, one can quote among the breaches of liberty:
- assimilation forced of the ethnic minorities;
- Discrimination S, restriction of freedom of movement, prohibition of the minority languages;
- limitations deliberated on the access to the Culture and art (closing of the libraries in province);
- prohibition of the political parties (except for the official party);
- expeditious Justice (not respect of the rights of defense) for the political opponents;
- not respect of the rights of the prisoners, suspect deaths in prison;
- not of Freedom of expression, in particular of Freedom of the press, for what touches with the policy of the president;
- not of access to the international press, little with Internet (less than one Net surfer percent inhabitants in November 2006);
- not respect of the rights of the children, school programs strongly marked by the official Propaganda with the detriment of the traditional disciplines (mathematical, history of the country, geography, literature…) ;
- restricted Freedom of the worship.
See also: Provinces of Turkménistan
The country is divided into five provinces:
- Ahal (1) whose capital is Änew;
- Balkan (2) whose capital is Balkanabat;
- Daşoguz (3) whose capital is Daşoguz;
- Lebap (4) whose capital is Türkmenabat;
- Mary (5) whose capital is Mary
The provinces are directed by a governor. Each province is subdivided in several districts.
See also: Geography of Turkménistan
Turkménistan is a country of Central Asia located at the North of the assembly line Kopet-Dag between the Caspian Sea and the river Amou-Daria. The country has borders with Kazakhstan and Ouzbékistan in north and the North-East, with Iran and Afghanistan in the south and south-east. The geographical characteristic most significant is the Désert of Karakoum which covers 80% of the surface of the country. The majority of the mountains of Turkménistan are inaccessible. The vestiges of old the Silk route go from central China to the Mediterranean coast, passing by Turkménistan.
The country is located in an area where the seismic risk is one of highest in the world.
The climate is desert subtropical and the weather is rather hot in summer.
See also: Economy of Turkménistan
The economy of Tukménistan is strongly dependant on the exploitation of sound Natural gas (it has the more important fifth holds in the world) as well as sound Pétrole, which represents 60 % of its exports. In the field of the Agriculture, half of the irrigated grounds is used to cultivate the Coton, making country the tenth more important producer in the world.
- GDP: 23,454 billion dollars in 1998, is 4 320 dollars per capita
- Distribution of the GDP by sector:
- primary: 18 %
- secondary: 50 %
- tertiary: 32 %
- Growth rate: 9 % (2002)
- Rate of inflation: 10,6 %
- Unemployment rate: 1,6 (2000)
Turkménistan is a country difficult to know and film. Information present on this page concerning the economy of the country is not proven. It is estimated that a little more than 50% the population lives in lower part of the poverty line of president Nyýazow who will never be diffused because revealing the close relationships that it maintains with the chain and its majority shareholder Bouygues.
The railway network is the principal turkmene means of transport. This network connects the big cities. The roads are also developed thanks to the fast tracks. The national ropeway, Turkmen Airlines, is used to him less. The maritime transport is almost unutilised.
The European road E60 crosses, by its prologement Asian, Turkménistan.
CodesTurkménistan has as codes:
- EZ, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- TKM, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 (code list country),
- TKM, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- TKM, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- TM, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- TM, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- TX, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- UT, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
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