See also: Turin (homonymy)
GeographyTurin is crossed according to a North-South axis by the river Po, and according to a East-West axis by the parallel 45e . The city is bordered in the east by the hill inhabitant of Turin which overhangs the city, and in the west by the the Alps.
The Agglomération of Turin counts nearly 1.700.000 inhabitants, while his urban Aire account 2.200.000 inhabitants (OECD ).
The economic activities are very numerous: cars and subcontracting (FIAT), railway construction, Insurances (Toro), Bank S, road transport, Food industry; what does of them one of the economic lungs of Italy. Turin constituted the industrial triangle of the country a long time, maintaining much more diffuse, with Milan and Genoa. Economic boom (" it miracolo") years of the post-war period was particularly powerful there (interior migration of people of the south towards north).
HistoryTurin was founded at the time Roman by Auguste, under the name of Augusta Taurinorum . The municipal blazon illustrates this origin with its gilded bull. In 1419, Savoy annexes the whole of the Piedmont. The city takes its rise in 1563, when it becomes the capital of the States of Savoy, in the place of Chambéry. It becomes the capital of the kingdom of Sardinia when this island is allotted to the prince of the Piedmont by the treaty of London in 1718. Of 1802 with 1814, Turin becomes the chief town of the department of Po.
Become in little time an imposing capital, Turin will launch the process of unification of Italy, thanks to Victor-Emmanuel, king of the dynasty of Savoy, and Cavour, political personality which gives the name of Risorgimento to this process of unification. Thanks to Garibaldi, the three men will succeed in unifying Italy. However, one can affirm that Cavour is the true father of Italy, from his crucial role at every time of Risorgimento. Thus, in 1861, Turin is the first capital of the kingdom of Italy, before losing this role in 1865, with the profit of Florence which loses it in its turn when Rome becomes capital in 1870. Since 1899, it is the historical seat of the Car manufacturer FIAT. In 2006, Turin accommodates the Winter Olympics.
Turin paradoxically occupies a particular place in the French history since it was the place of “deportation” and detention of the totality of the population of the town of Breil-on-Roya (the Alpes-Maritimes) by the German troops of occupation during the Second world war between October 1944 and that of April 1945, as well as inhabitants of the French villages of Fontan and Saorge (between December 1944 and April 1945).
Monuments and curiosities
- the place Vittorio Veneto, one of largest of Europe, which leads to the church of Gran Madre di Dio.
Turin is the Italian city par excellence historical coffees: prestigious coffees, centenaries, bicentenaries, those are a cultural and culinary hearth, such as Mulassano , which in 1925 made import the Tramezzino America in Italy, or this small bread crumb sandwich became extremely appreciated by the Italians. Coffees such as Fiorio , have summers attended by important cultural and political personalities such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Mark Twain and Cavour.
Castello del Valentino, single construction in its kind in Italy, since it mixes a resplendent baroque with an architecture inspired with the French castles.
Piedmontese baroque, i.e. the single example of baroque in the world or constructions is not painted, one can thus see bricks of constructions, giving an original aspect to constructions.
Carried palazzo: from day, this gigantic place, among largest of Europe, is transformed into the largest market with open sky of Europe. Porta Palazzo is the ethnic heart of the city, or mix with the products Piedmontese scents and tastes come from all the Africa and Asia.
imposing the palatine Porte (palazzo Carried), dating from the Roman epoch, close a market is held, which is the famous largest being of Europe and which attracts visitors, who come from Italy (and France) by coach.
the medieval borough in the park of the Po. A reconstitution of medieval village with the vision of the romanticism of the 19th century.
the Mole Antonelliana, high 167 meters dominates the town of its characteristic silhouette. Built in the beginning to be used as Synagog, it is today a museum of the Cinéma, undoubtedly most important in Europe.
traditional the Piazza San Carlo with the equestrian statue of Emmanuel-Philibert of Savoy.
the streets with arcades which add up 24 kilometers of sheltered walks and make of it a characteristic of this city to the alpine climate.
the Lingotto is an old factory FIAT, transformed into shopping mall and center of congress by Renzo Piano. Lingotto is famous for its automobile test track on its roof.
the cathedral Saint-Jean-Baptist, which shelters the Saint-Shroud.
the church Holy-Madeleine.
- the Museo Egizio, the second larger Egyptian museum in the world, after that of the Cairo.
the royal Arms manufacture.
the center of sciences Tried out.
the civic Gallery of Modern art and contemporary of Turin (GAM): art of the 18th century at our days.
the Gallery Sabauda: collections of pictorial art of the the Middle Ages at the time modern.
the Museum of Risorgimento, devoted to the Italian Unification.
the Museum of the Cinema, installed under the immense dome of the Antonelliana Mole.
- Gianni Agnelli, industrialist and contractor, owner and leader of FIAT
- Amedeo Avogadro (1776 - 1856), chemist and physicist
- Alessandro Baricco (1958 -…), writer
- Camillo Benso, count de Cavour (1810 - 1861), politician, craftsman of the Italian Unit
- Giovanni Bosco ( Gift Bosco ) (1815 - 1888), priest who dedicated his life with the education of the young children of underprivileged mediums.
- Carla Bruni (1968 -…), Mannequin signal-model and Song writer and performer of songs
- Valeria Bruni-Tedeschi
- Ernesto Ferrero (1938 -…), writer
- Sonia Gandhi
- Joseph-Louis Lagrange
- Carlo Levi
- Primo Levi
- Giovanni Arpino
- Holy Giuseppe Benedetto Cottolengo, 1786 - 1842, Fondateur of the Piccola Put della Divina Providenza
SportsTurin accommodated the Winter Olympics from February 10th to 26th 2006.
The city is also re-elected for its teams of Football, the Juventus and the Torino FC. Juventus is the most constant team in Italy, even if in the city and the Piedmont it is the " Torino" who adds up the greatest number of supporters. The two teams are divided as well socially as politically: the " Toro" is regarded as the rebellious and working team, whereas the " Juve" represent the family Agnelli and the line more traditional inhabitant of Turin in general.
TransportOn the railway level, the town of Turin is served by three Gare S principal: Torino Carried Susa, Torino Lingotto and Torino Porta Nuova which is the main station laid out in terminus. It is with the outlet of the line of the Mount-Cenis, which by the railway tunnel of Frejus, connects the French and Italian railway networks FS, the city is then connected to the remainder of the country by the network Intercity (time given rhythm) and ETR 500 (trains at high speed).
Turin has a network of Tramway S. a line of Cog railway connects the district of Sassi to the Basilica of Superga. An automatic line of subway of type light automatic Vehicle (VALLEY), which serves in particular the two stations Porta Susa and Porta Nuova, is in service since the Olympic Games of 2006.
A line of Train at high speed (TGV) connecting Lyon to Turin via Chambéry, including/understanding several tunnels under the the Alps, and coupled to a new line of goods transport, is in project. It could be brought into service about 2020. In addition, the line at Turin-Milan high speed is in the course of completion. The section between Turin and Novare was brought into service in 2005. This line makes it possible to connect Turin to the network Milan-Rome high speed. A line is in construction between Milan and Trieste, in the east.
The international airport of Turin, Caselle, is located at 16 km in the north of the center town.
Communes borderingVenaria Reale, Settimo Torinese, Borgaro Torinese, San Mauro Torinese, Collegno, Rivoli, Baldissero Torinese, Grugliasco, Pino Torinese, Orbassano, Pecetto Torinese, Beinasco, Moncalieri, Nichelino
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