Tunis (rear RTL تونس) is principal the Ville of the Tunisia. Capital of the country without interruption since the September 20th 1159 (5 Ramadan 554 of the Moslem Calendar) under the impulse of the Almohades, confirmed in its statute under the Dynasty of the Hafsides in 1228, it is also the Chef-lieu governorship of the same name since its creation in 1956.
Located at the Northern of the country, at the bottom of the Gulf of Tunis from which it is separated by the Lac from Tunis, the city extends on the coastal Plaine and the neighbouring hills. Populated: 728453 inhabitants).
Tunis is the French transcription of a name which decides in Arab tûnus , tûnas or Tunis (U having the value of the or French ). The three terms are indicated by the Arab geographer Yaqout Al-Rumi in its work Mu' jam Al-Bûldan (the dictionary of the countries). The last is that which prevails in the name of the city just as in the gentilé tûnisi or tûnusi (Tunisian).
This term, resulting from the verbal term ens of the Berber dialects , is defined as “being lying” or “lying down” and by extension “outward journey to spend the night to”, “to be able so as to spend the night”, “to go to spend the night at”. Among the very many derivatives of this term, one finds clay crushers (plural of ténésé ) indicating “the fact of being lying” and by extension “makes it spend the night”. Taking into account the vocalic variations in time and space, the name of Tunis thus has most probably the direction of “camping of night”, “bivouac” or “halt”. In the ancient Toponymy of the Roman Africa, one also notes the names close to the localities of Tuniza (current El Kala), Thunusuda (current Sidi Meskine), Thinissut (current Bir Bouregba), Thunisa (current Ras Jebel) or Cartennae (current Ténès in Algérie).
The city is born, at one moved back time, the crossroads of roads which are constituted naturally through the narrow strip of land tightened between the vast basins of the Tunis Lake and Séjoumi. The Isthme which separates them constitutes what the geologists call the “dome of Tunis”, which includes/understands hills of rocks limestones and sediments of wind and lake origin. It is a kind of natural bridge by where pass, as of the Antiquité, several roads important connecting the Berbérie to the Egypt and whose Tunisian section passes by Utique and Hadrumète. The second road is that of Béja which skirts the Medjerda and joined in Tunis the road of Utique. The third is the road of Sicca which puts the Numidie in communication with Hadrumète. These roads are obviously tributary of Carthage when this one affirms its political and economic primacy in Africa. On these road courses, the traffic patterns supported the birth of relay and stages among which Tunis.
On a surface of: 300000 hectares: 30000 are urbanized, the remainder being divided between water levels (: 20000 hectares of lagoons or sebkhas of which most important are the Lac of Tunis, the Sebkha Ariana and the sebkha Sejoumi) and of agricultural or natural spaces (: 250000 hectares). However, the urban growth, which is evaluated with 500 hectares per annum, is done with the detriment of this space. It is all the more expensive as it consumes the flat grounds of most interesting for the cultures.
The Climat tunisois belongs to the Mediterranean Climat characterized by a Saison fresh and rainy and a hot and dry season. It owes its features essential with the Latitude of the city, the moderating influence of the Mediterranean and the relief of the Such septentrional one.
The Hiver is the wettest season of the year: it falls thus more of the third from annual precipitations during this period, which accounts for one day of Pluie all both or three days. The sunning maintains a certain softness all the same: the temperatures evolve/move on average between 7 °C the morning and 16 °C the afternoon. The frosts are thus very rare even non-existent. To the Spring, it falls less rain: the office plurality of the precipitations decreases thus by half. The sunning becomes dominating with the wire of the months to reach 10 hours on average per day in May. The temperatures feel some, variable in March between 8 and 18 °C, in May between 13 and 24 °C. This season can also know canicular heats, Tunis having already recorded temperatures record of 40 °C in April and May. In be, the rain is done completely absent and the maximum sunning. The median values of the temperatures are very high. The marine breezes attenuate heat but the Sirocco shift sometimes the tendency. In Automne, it goes back to rain, often at the time of short storms, which can sometimes support raw rapids even floods in certain districts of the city. November in general marks a thermal cut with temperatures which evolve/move on average between 11 and 20 °C.
The Métropole of Tunis, whose surface increased much during second half of the 20th century, extends now on several governorships: the governorship of Tunis accommodates a minority of the population of the agglomeration while the suburbs extend on the governorships from Ben Arous, of the Ariana and Manouba.
The municipality of Tunis is divided into 15 municipal districts: Bab El Bhar, Bab Souika, Quoted El Khadra, Djebel Jelloud, El Kabaria, El Menzah, El Ouardia, Ettahrir, Ezzouhour, Hraïria, Médina, El Omrane, El Omrane higher, Séjoumi, Sidi El Béchir and Sidi Hassine.
See also: History of Tunis
The existence of the locality is attested at the beginning of fourth century BC. Perched on its Hill, Tunis is an excellent observatory from where the Libyans can easily follow the demonstrations external of the life of Carthage (comings and goings from the Navire S or Caravane S towards the interior of the country). Tunis is one of the first Libyan cities to pass under the Carthaginian domination being given its vicinity with the large city and its strategic position. More once, in the centuries which follow, it is mentioned Tunes in the military history of Carthage. Thus, during the forwarding of Agathoclès of Syracuse, which unloads in 310 av. J. - C. with the Cape Bon, Tunis changes hand on several occasions. In addition, its role during the Guerre of the Mercenaries lets think that it is then “one of the principal centers of the race aboriginal by the Romans during the Third Punic War, it would have been rebuilt before Carthage. It is however the object only rare testimonys whose Table of Peutinger which mentions Thuni, date on which Shiite Berbères take the Ifriqiya and found the dynasty of the Fatimides, then becomes again chief town of district. In September 945, of the insurgent kharidjists occupy Tunis and deliver it to plundering. With the advent of the dynasty of the Zirides, Tunis gains in importance but the population sunnite supports the Shiite reign more and more badly and perpetuates massacres against this community and deliver the city to the Pillage. Charles Quint, called with the rescue by the European leaders threatened by the Othoman projection in the Mediterranean, takes the city on August 6th, 1535 and restores the sovereign hafside.
Vis-a-vis the difficulties encountered by this last, the Othoman Uludj Ali, with the head of an army of Janissary S and Kabyles takes again Tunis in 1569. However, following the Battle of Lépante in 1571, the Spaniards manage to take again the city and restore the sovereign hafside. After the last combat, the city falls finally to the hands from the Othomans in August 1574. Become an Othoman province controlled by a pasha named by the Othoman sultan based with Istanbul, the country does not delay to reach a certain autonomy (1591). Under the reign of the deys then beys mouradites, the capital takes a new rise: its population grows bigger thanks to multiple ethnic contributions, of which the Moors driven out of Spain, and the economic activities diversify. To traditional industries and the exchanges with the remote countries the race is added which knows its golden age then. The profits ensured by the repurchase of the Christian slaves also make it possible to the sovereigns to raise sumptuous constructions which renew the monumental ornament inherited the Moyen-âge.
At the beginning of the 18th century, Tunisia enters during a new time of its history with the advent of the dynasty of the Husseinites. Within this framework, multiple initiatives emanating of the princes following one another the capacity or dignitaries make many urban adjustments which renew and enrich the monumental ornament by the city. During this period, the city thrives again as centers of trade but also at Pirate laughs until the 19th century, period during which its population is evaluated, according to the various sources, on a scale going from: 90000 with: 110000 inhabitants. Benefitting from the internal dissensions to the dynasty, the Algerians seize Tunis in 1756 and place the country under supervision. At the beginning of the XIXe century, Hammouda Bey must face the Bombardement S of the Venetian fleet but succeeds in demolishing Algerian supervision and dissolves the militia of the janissaries after a revolt in 1811. Under the reign of Hussein II Bey, the naval victories of the English (1826) and French (1827) puts an end to the race, depriving the country of the incomes while rising. During the half-century which goes from the conquest of Algeria to the Traité of Bardo, from the European colonies, increasingly many each year, come to enlarge the population tunisoise. Consequently, the space organization of the east city called into question by the first demolitions of the ramparts, starting from 1860, and the opening of the doors as of 1870. The city extends consequently out of its walls, between the médina and banks of the lake, to accommodate the new populations and receives the first modern equipment as regards adduction of Eau (1860), of lighting to the gas (1872), of roadway system, the removal of the Household refuse (1873) as well as communications with the outskirts of the city and the back-country. In margin of the traditional craft industry and trade which decline, the newcomers develop the exchanges with Europe, introduce the first modern Industrie S and thus acclimatize on the margins of the Arab city of new forms of life urban.
The year 1881, which is that of the introduction of the French protectorate, mark a turning in the history of Tunis. The city enters one era of fast changes which deeply transform it into two or three decades. Remained during centuries contained behind its Fortification S, the city thus extends quickly: it is duplicated downtown an old city populated by the Arab population and new populated by the new arrivals and different from its structure with the Arab city. Tunis is the subject also of important work which equips it with adductions of Eau, of Natural gas and electricity, public transport and social equipment. To the traditional economy a capitalist economy of the colonial type is added.
The First World War mark a downtime in the history of Tunis. After the war, the city knows new transformations: the modern city gains in importance and extends its network of squared streets in all the possible directions. Moreover, one whole of cities - satellites make their appearance and still push back the limits of the urban surface tunisoise. At the economic level, the activities develop and diversify: modern industries see their business transactions becoming extensive whereas traditional industry continues its decline. During the period which opens with the Second world war, Tunis knows a whole of changes which give him a new face. It is in this context that a belt of “spontaneous suburbs appears” (called gourbivilles ) which surround the capital quickly. After the war, the industrialization of the capital accelerates but does not allow to provide for the needs for a population in full growth. At the same time, contrasts within the city are accentuated.
At the time of the independence of the country in 1956, Tunis is confirmed in its role of capital, the constitution of June 1st, 1959 laying out that the House of Commons and the presidency of the republic must have their seats with Tunis or its suburbs. In a very short amount of time, the changes follow one another and transform the colonial city. Europeans who see their upset living conditions solve gradually at the beginning. Progressively, the Tunisians replace them and the population of the agglomeration continues to grow. The opposition between the Arab city and the European city attenuates gradually with the Arabisation of the population. Under the demographic pressure, the city still extends with creation from new districts which include little by little the closest suburbs. The equipment inherited protectorate is gradually renewed and modernized and of new constructions enrich the urban landscape. In same time, an active policy of industrialization develops the municipal economy. June 12th, 1979, Tunis becomes the seat of the Arab Ligue after the signature by the Egypt of the Camp David agreements with Israel. It will remain it until October 31st, 1990.
Structure and town planning
See also: Which occurred Habib Bourguiba
The médina was built on a hill with the soft slopes going down towards the Tunis Lake in the east and the sebkha Séjoumi in the west. The European city was built thereafter between the médina and the lake. Since, the metropolis extends towards the hills from north and the plain from the south by constituting various districts:
- Borgel : district sheltering the cemeteries Jew and Christian of Tunis
- Quoted Ezzouhour (in the past El Kharrouba in reference to a tree of the same name): district of the west of Tunis, extending on more than 3 kilometers (divided into 5 sections), strewn with agricultural and market-gardening surfaces of which remains only of small pieces cultivated to feed the souks of the area
- Cité Gardens
- Djebel Jelloud: district located at the south-eastern limit of Tunis and concentrating the Heavy industry (Cement ery, treatment plant of the Phosphate S, etc)
- El Menzah and El Manar: districts built on the hills dominating the north of the agglomeration sheltering a series of residential districts and commercial connected and composed of numbered Allotment S (El Menzah I to IX)
- El Omrane
- the View-point: district of the north of the city sheltering the Park of the View-point (largest of the city) and its zoo as well as the Institute Pasteur
- the Banks of the Lake: district arranged on the northern of lake and accessible bank in majority offices of many Tunisian or international companies, of the Embassy S and the shops of luxury
- Cagna: popular suburbs of the south of Tunis
- Fayette: old French district sheltering the Large synagog of Tunis
- Small Sicily: old harbor district of Tunis being the subject of a project of refitting
- Médina: historical city built on the hill dominating the city and sheltering several palates, of which the Dar Ben Abdallah and the Dar Hussein, the royal mausoleum of Tourbet El Bey and the Mosque Zitouna
- Mutuelleville: shelter in particular the French college Pierre-Mendès-France and some embassies.
- Close-cropped Tabia: district in particular sheltering an important barracks of the Tunisian Armed
- Sidi Hassine: popular quarters of the west of Tunis, sheltering industrial activities, which is high with the row of 8th municipality of the Gouvernorat of Tunis in 2006
See also: Médina of Tunis
With a Surface of 270 Hectare S (more 29 hectares for the district of the kasbah) around the initial core of the Mosque Zitouna, it develops its urban fabric throughout the Moyen-âge, towards north and the south, being thus divided into a principal médina and two suburbs in north (Bab Souika) and in the south (Bab El Jazira). Become capital with a powerful kingdom to the time hafside, religious and intellectual hearth and great economic center open on the the Middle East, the the Maghreb, the Africa and the Europe, it obtains many Monument S where the styles mix with the Ifriqiya with the Andalusian and Eastern influences but which also borrow some of their columns or their capitals from the Roman or Byzantine monuments, Arab architecture being characterized only by the use of the arc broken and slightly exceeded.
This architectural heritage is also omnipresent in the houses of private individuals and the small palaces of the official personalities as well as in the palate of the sovereign to the Kasbah.
However, rare are the palates and residences which go back to the Middle Ages, contrary to 18th, 18th and 19th centuries which bequeathed prestigious houses such as Dar Othman (beginning of the 17th century), Dar Ben Abdallah (18th century), the Dar Hussein, Dar Chérif as well as other more or less vast and richly decorated houses whose inventory of the Années 1970 does not count of it less than one hundred. One also counts several palates raised by the beys or of the members of their entourage in the suburbs of Tunis and this since the 13th century. The principal palates of the beys are those of Marsa, the Bardo and Ksar Saïd. If one adds the Mosquée S and oratorical S (approximately 200), the Médersa S (El Bachia, Slimania, El Achouria, Bir El Ahjar, El Nakhla, etc), the Zaouïa S (Sidi Mehrez, Sidi Ali Azouz, Sidi Abdel Kader, etc), the kouttabs, dug peat them (Tourbet El Fellari, Tourbet Aziza Othmana and Tourbet El Bey) and them doors, the number of the monuments of Tunis approaches the 600.
In addition, along the Boulevard S create on the site of the old ramparts, the architectural contribution of the period 1850 - 1950 is felt in the official buildings, the médina accommodating nine ministries and the seat of the municipality of Tunis.
The souks constitute a true network of covered lanes and broadsides of commercial shops of and craftsmen grouped by specialities. The “clean” trades are located close to the Mosquée Zitouna because they do not cause any harmful effect by the odor, the noise or the use of water. The fabric merchants, the Perfume eurs, the merchants of dry fruits, the Bookseller S and the merchants of Laine are concerned contrary to the tanners, Poisson niers, potters and Forgeron S which is relegated to the periphery. There exists thus a codified hierarchy of the trades: trade of the chechias, that of the perfumes, the weaving of the Silk, saddlery, clothes industry of the Clothing S, the manufacture of the Turkish slipper S, weaving, pottery and finally blacksmiths and dyers.
In the north of the Zitouna mosque, which it skirts partly, opens the souk El Attarine (perfumes) built at the beginning of the 18th century. It surprises by its gravers abounding in flasks containing a great gasoline diversity and perfumes. Starting from this souk, a street carries out towards the souk Ech-Chaouachya (chechias) of which the Corporation, those of the chaouachis, is one of oldest country. They are in general descendants of Andalusian emigrants driven out Spain. On the souk El Attarine open two other souks: the first, which skirts the Western frontage of the Zitouna mosque, is the souk El Kmach (fabrics) and the second, the souk El Birka, dating from the 17th century, shelters the embroiderers but especially the jewellers. This is why, it is about the only souk whose doors are still closed and kept during the night. In his medium, one notices a square place where old the Marché to the slaves until the middle of the 19th century was. ” Often damaged even completely destroyed during the the Middle Ages, the enclosure always preserved its layout of origin. It was strewn with various doors.
Bab El Jazira, undoubtedly the oldest door of the southernmost wall, opened on the roads of the south and Kairouan. Bab Carthagena gave access to Carthage from where were brought back the construction materials necessary to the city. Bab Souika (initially called Bab El Saqqayin) had the strategic role to keep the roads towards Bizerte, Béja and Kef. Bab Menara (initially called Bab El Artha) opened the médina towards the suburb of El Haoua. As for Bab El Bhar, it gave access to some fondouks where the Christian merchants of Tunis lived.
At the beginning of the reign of the Hafsides, two new doors are bored at the 13th century: Bab Bnet and Bab Jedid. With the development of the capital, two suburbs emergent outside the ramparts: Bab El Jazira (in the south) and Bab Souika (in north). This is why, the sovereign hafside Abû Darba Muhammad Al-Mustansir Al-Lihyânî orders, at the beginning of the 14th century, the construction of one second enclosure including the external médina and his two suburbs. It is equipped with six doors: Bab El Khadra, Bab Saadoun, Bab El Allouj (initially called Bab er-Rehiba), Bab Khalid or Bab Sidi Abdallah Sherif, Bab El Fellah and Bab Alioua. At the time Othoman, four new doors are open: Bab Laassal, Bab Sidi Abdesselam, Bab El Gorjani and Bab Sidi Kacem.
The town of Tunis preserves three doors, Bab Saadoun, Bab El Khadra and Bab El Bhar, which opened the old wall which disappeared mainly.
As in the remainder of Tunisia, a very vast majority of the population tunisoise (around 98%) is of Moslem confession sunnite. The capital thus shelters a very great number of Mosquée S of various architectural styles, signs of their respective times of construction. Principal and the oldest of them, the Mosque Zitouna, built in 732 in the middle of the Médina then entirely rebuilt in 864, is a prestigious place of worship and, for a long time, an important place of culture and to know by sheltering the buildings of the Université Zitouna until independence of Tunisia. It still accommodates the ceremonies marking the principal dates of the Moslem Calendrier to which assists regularly the president of the Republic.
The médina gathers the majority of the large mosques of the capital which all are built before the advent of French protectorate:
the mosque of the kasbah, founded in 1230 and practitioner the rite hanéfite since 1584, is characterized especially by the cupola in Stalactite S preceding the Mihrab as by its Minaret which points out that of the Koutoubia of Marrakech and which is most of the city. Small the orthodoxe community as for it is gathered around the orthodoxe Greek church (1862), managed by the embassy of Greece, and the orthodoxe Russian church (1957) which testifies to the presence in Tunisia of a small colony of refugees Russian white. It is carried out in the landscape style which is practiced then in metropolis, constituting a very vast space of more than one hundred of Hectare S crossed of roads which one can traverse with foot or in car. It in addition shelters the zoo of Tunis, which presents the African fauna , and the Museum of modern art.
The Garden Habib Thameur, French Garden located in the district of the Passage, is characterized by a regular layout and includes/understands a central water part as well as floral floors and solid masses. The garden of Gorjani, English Garden located at the south-west of the city, presents an irregular layout most probably dependant the Topographie escarpée of the ground. It includes/understands a central basin and curved alleys. Both are carried out in the year which follows independence instead of old Cimetière S closed down, in particular the Cimetière Jew of Tunis which is moved with the Borgel.
Since the Second world war, a fast but unequal progression of the suburbs is carried out according to the geographical sectors concerned. The suburbs thus take an increasingly significant part in the population of the agglomeration tunisoise. Accounting for 27% of the total of the inhabitants in 1956, it passes to 37% in 1975 then to nearly 50% of this total in 2006:
To the North-West, in the prolongation of the Bardo, political center of the country after independence and district of the ministries and the National Assembly, the frame progresses by occupations then illegal constructions or by the construction of collective habitats cheap (Ksar Saïd, Den Den, Manouba, etc). In north, the View-point, El Menzah and the Ariana are structured by private housing estates on both sides of the new transportation routes connecting the downtown area to the airport. Here live the middle-classes and were established many university equipment and official research organizations. The south of the agglomeration still suffers from its activities Industrie them, mining and harbor. With Ben Arous multiply however the residential allotments or the illegal occupations of grounds along the road axes. This regular growth of manpower is accompanied by changes which modify in a radical way the settlement of the capital. The Décolonisation resulted in the exodus of all the denominational minorities whose manpower are reduced year by year. But the vacuums created by their departure are superabundantly filled by Tunisians who flow of the back-country.
At the beginning of the 21e century, the metropolis of Tunis exceeds them: 2000000 inhabitants. The multiplication by fourteen of the population since the beginning of the 20th century is initially the result of external migrations. As from 1975, the growth of the population is made in an endogenous way or by transfers of the medium-sized cities - population growth slowing down gradually just like the Rural migration - because of the economic development and the attractivity of the capital. It is in the years following the Second world war that the growth rate of the population of Tunis knows her paroxysm.
After independence, the Tunisian government implements, to deal with the growth of the population of the country, system of Family planning, which makes it possible to reduce demographic growth rate. Between 1994 and 2004, the population of the governorship of Tunis does not increase any more but by 1,03% per annum. It represents, at the time of the Recensement 2004,9,9% of the whole of the Tunisian population. As in the remainder of Tunisia, the Alphabétisation of the area of Tunis knew a quick change during second half of the XXe century and reached even a slightly higher level compared to the national average: the governorship of Tunis knows the higher educational level highest of the country (14,8% of more than 10 years) and is even exceeded by the governorship close to Ariana (15,3% |barcolor=rgb (0%, 0%, 100%) |75 and +|10033|11472 |70-74|9583|9830 |65-69|12629|13638 |60-64|13657|15133 |55-59|17806|19590 |50-54|26764|25328 |45-49|32453|31498 |40-44|38530|37685 |35-39|39494|40740 |30-34|42469|40084 |25-29|48773|45668 |20-24|54142|51111 |15-19|43615|42460 |10-14|38265|37842 |5-9|34142|32870 |0-4|34574|31996 }}
Placed in an old palate beylical since the end of the 19th century, the National museum of Bardo is most important of the archaeological museums of the the Maghreb and one of richest of the world in mosaic Roman. Its collections quickly developed thanks to the many archaeological discoveries made through the territory.
The Dar Ben Abdallah, palate probably dating from the 18th century, becomes in 1964 the seat of the Museum of arts and popular traditions of the capital. It contains in its showrooms of many traditional, pilot elements of the daily life of a family of the Médina. The Museum of the national movement is located in Dar Maâkal Az-Zaïm, remains of the nationalist Habib Bourguiba throughout the period of the fight for independence. After the advent of the latter, a museum is arranged there in order to report the adventures of the national fight between 1938 and 1952.
The national military Museum, open in the western suburbs of the city on June 24th, 1989, has a collection of: 23000 parts of which: 13000 weapons dating from the 19th century, a part having been used by the Tunisian troops at the time of the Crimean War.
Tunis shelters musical institutions among most prestigious of the country. The troop of Rachidia is founded there in 1934 to safeguard the Arab Musique original and particularly to develop the Tunisian Musique through new creations inspired of the rules of the music ifriquienne. It is composed of 22 members (players of instruments and Chorale).
The musical Troop of the town of Tunis is created in 1954 by Salah El Mahdi. It charges in 1955 its disciple Mohamed Saâda with directing this troop which at that time gathers the best artists of the place who integrate thereafter the troop of the national radio. She contributes to the promotion of several names of the Tunisian song of which Oulaya. The Association of the Arab orchestra of the town of Tunis begins its activities at the end of the month of April 1982 as a workshop related to the municipal arts center. It sticks to the promotion of the Arab music, the musical formation like with the co-operation with various partners in Tunisia and abroad. The Tunisian Symphony orchestra, created in 1969 by the ministry for the culture, in addition produces monthly concerts with the municipal Theater or in one of the cultural centres of the capital.
The town of Tunis constitutes a major pole of the Tunisian cultural life. The municipal Theater of Tunis, as of its inauguration on November 20th, 1902, opens the way with the diffusion of artistic creation in the city: symphonic opera, Ballet, concerts, dramatic art, etc On the scene of this theater, many representations is regularly given by many Tunisian, Arab and international actors.
In this context, the Théâtre plays a part of importance. The Tunisian National theater, state enterprise in cultural matter, is installed since 1988 with the Khaznadar Palate (dating from the middle of the 19th century and located at Halfaouine) renamed “Palate of the Theater”. In 1993, it also takes possession of old the Cinema Paris, of a capacity of 350 places, renamed “Room the Fourth Art”. It shelters each cultural season (of October 1st with the June 30th) more than 80 stage performances. After fifteen years of closing, it is transformed into theater of pocket in 1986 and shelters the first theatrical research and formation center arabo-African of since March 2001. The first projections are organized the following year and the first Cinema, Omnia-Pathé, opened in October 1908. The first Ciné-club of Tunis is open in 1946 and the first room of art and test, the Earth, in 1965.
In 1990, Férid Boughedir turns in the district of Halfaouine its first feature-length film: Halfaouine, the child of the terraces . the English Patient (1996) and the Last Days of Pompéi (2003) are them turned in studios tunisois.
Festivals and events
The agglomeration organizes several Festival S each year of which most important is the International festival of Carthage which has in July place and August with an international repercussion. Founded in 1964, it is with its 42e edition. It makes it possible to propose with the public, within the framework of the Amphithéâtre of Carthage (with a capacity of: 7500 seats in steps), services of singers, musicians, actors, dancers as well as film projection on screen in the open air. Among the most famous festivals, we can also quote the cinematographic Journées of Carthage organized every two years as well as the theatrical Days of Carthage.
Many cultural events and fairs also are organized within the agglomeration tunisoise each year.
Tunis and its suburbs concentrate the principal Tunisian universities: the University Zitouna, the University of Tunis, the University of Tunis - El Manar, the University of November 7th with Carthage and the University of Manouba. This is why, one counts the strongest concentration there of many students in Tunisia -: 75597 -, this figure gathering the students of the Zitouna universities, Tunis and Tunis - El Manar. One finds there also several establishments of higher education such as the National school of engineers de Tunis, the National school of sciences of data processing, the University of the communications of Tunis, the agronomic National institute of Tunisia, the Institute of higher learning of the technological studies in communications of Tunis or the preparatory Institut being studied of engineers de Tunis. In addition, the number of the private universities and other training institutes increase with the image of creations of the free Université of Tunis, of the private central Université of administration of the businesses and technology or the Maghrebian Institute of the economic scenes and of technology.
Among the most known colleges of the capital appear the College of the street of the Pasha (founded in 1900), the College Bab El Khadhra, the College of the street of Russia, the College Habib Bourguiba (old Lycée Carnot of Tunis), the Alaoui College or the Experimental high school of the Ariana. Until independence, the College Sadiki (founded in 1875) and the Khaldounia (founded in 1896) also appeared among the most recognized establishments. Lastly, heritage of the French presence in the country, the city preserves several French schools of which most important is the Lycée Pierre-Mendès-France located at Mutuelleville.
Tunis gathers some of most important the Bibliothèque S of Tunisia whose National library which is initially installed in 1924 in a building of the Médina builds in 1810 by Hammouda Bey to be used as quartering with the troops of the Janissaire S then of Prison. Become too exiguous, the library is transferred, on December 1st, 2005, in its new seat of 35000 m2 located at the boulevard April 9th, 1938. The new building comprises a room of reading, a conference room, laboratories, a gallery of exposure, a block of engineering services and administrative, a relay open to the visitors, a restaurant, a carpark and an green area covering 10300 m2.
Built at the 17th century, Dar Ben Achour shelters the Library of the town of Tunis. Acquired at the end of the Years 1970 by the town hall of Tunis, the residence is restored before sheltering as of 1983 the public library, “Tunis and its suburbs” accommodate all the national institutions:
the presidency of the Republic which sits at the presidential palace of Carthage
- the House of Commons and the Chambre of the advisers, composing the Parliament, which sits in the old palate beylical of the Bardo at the sides of the National museum of Bardo
- the ministries and the public agencies
- the Constitutional council as well as the principal legal institutions
The Municipal council is composed of 60 members including 20 assistants elected by the council after its taking of. During the legislature 2005 - 2010, the distribution of the seats is done in the following way: 48 for the Constitutional Democratic Assembly (party in power at the national level), 4 for the Movement of the socialist democrats, 4 for the Left the popular unit, 3 for the unionistic democratic Union and 1 for the Left social-liberal.
The Municipal council meets 4 times per annum but can meet in extraordinary session at the request of the mayor. Among its competences the study and the vote of the municipal budget appear, of the program of municipal equipment and the actions to be undertaken within the framework of the national plan of development. Mohsen abbots, 30e mayor of Tunis, is in station since 2000 where it succeeds Mohammed Ali Bouleymane. He is re-elected and confirmed at his station after the municipal elections of 2005.
In complement of the municipal institutions, each of the 15 municipal districts has of a meeting council each month in the presence of the elected officials and the representatives of the administrations concerned with the questions with the day order.
The Budget 2006 adopted by the Municipal council is articulated in the following way: 65 million dinars for operation and 38,7 million dinars for the investments. The receipts are the product of the Taxe S on the built and not built buildings, of the Redevance S of Location of the municipal properties, of the trading incomes of the public highway, the Publicité, the sale of the municipal field and the actions which the municipality holds in the capital of certain companies.
The great weaknesses of the economy tunisoise are its insufficient attractivity for the overseas investments (33% of the companies, 26% of the investments and 27% of employment), the exclusion of several zones of the economic dynamic because of urban imbalances, the Unemployment rate of the graduates of the superior who is in progression just as the rate of Analphabétisme which remains high within the oldest population (27% of the women and 12% of the men), Tunis still profits from several large Plaine S fertile very productive: plains of the Ariana and Soukra (northern), the plain of Manouba (western) and the plain of Mornag (southern). Moreover, one vast Ground water easily accessible by drilling from not very deep wells brings water necessary to the various cultures. The ground S are heavy and Calcaire S in north but light and clay-sand in the south. The agricultural productions are diversified, in particular because of a mode of Pluie S distributed during the year: durum Wheat (Manouba), olive-tree (Ariana and Mornag), Vine (Mornag), Arboriculture Fruit ière, truck farming and leguminous cultures (all areas).
The city lays out with the beginning of the 21e century of a network of Public transport relatively developed and placed under management of the Société of transport of Tunis (STT):
the city has a complex network of lines of bus (214 on the whole).
- the first line of the light subway opens in 1985. The network extends gradually since to reach the peripheral districts.
- the capital is connected to its northern suburbs by the railway line of the TGM which crosses the dam dividing the lake into two.
In addition, a new project of transport of mass is projected for the area of Large Tunis at the horizon 2009. It is about the RFR (fast Railway network) which is the equivalent of the the RER Paris IEN and which will transport tens of travellers thousands since the remote suburbs of Tunis towards the center by using existing railways or to build. It will be broken up into lines whose priority will be function of certain criteria like the density of the population or the deficit of the service road of a given zone. Among the priorities are the following lines. However, the very significant development of the harbor installations of Goulette and Roads, profiting from more favorable sites, and the progressive transfer of the activities and the traffic make it possible to consider at the beginning of the 21e century the refitting of the wearing of Tunis and its transformation into Marina within the framework of the refitting of the district of Small Sicily.
Tunis also knows a density of important circulation because of the growth of the car fleet which evolves/moves at the rate of 7,5% per annum. Moreover, the capital only concentrates with it at least 40% of the national park with the circulation of some: 700000 cars per day.
Tunis is in addition the core from where the main roads radiate as all the highways which serve the various areas of the country:
Highway A1: Tunis-MR.' saken
- Highway A3: Tunis-wadi Zarga
- Highway A4: Tunis-Bizerte
It is on January 19th, 1906 that the first company of Football in Tunisia is created: football club of Tunis. The denomination of the club is modified 6 days to later become Racing club of Tunis. For lack of adversary, Racing organizes meetings with the Belvédère (with the current site of the Stade Chedly-Zouiten) between the teams of the schools. The first meeting of football thus proceeds on June 9th, 1907 between the team of the Alaoui college and that of the college Carnot (1-1). With the creation of a second football club, in October 1907, which takes again the old denomination of Racing, proceeds finally a match between Racing and Football Club.
The Stage Chedly-Zouiten, located in the district of the View-point, was a long time the principal Stade of the capital before being supplanted by the Olympic stadium of El Menzah in 1967 then by the Stade of November 7th, located at Radès, in 2001.
The sporting Hope of Tunis (IS), the African Club (CA) and the Tunisian Stade are the large football teams of the city.
The matches between the two clubs of the Suburb S tunisois, IS and CA, would cart symbolically an opposition of Social class between a rich and middle-class club (IS) and a club poor and supported by the popular masses (CA). However, while considering the composition of the first directing offices or on the constitution of the teams, it is astonishing to note how much the Bourgeoisie and the notable ones are present in the two clubs.
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