The Tudeh حزبتودهایران|Hezb-e Tudeh-ye Iran , translated by “Party of the Masses of Iran” is a Communist party Iran IEN founded in 1941. It had close relationships with the Communist party of the Soviet Union. It was a major political party in Iran before the purgings having taken place at the beginning of the existence of the Islamic Republic of Iran under the direction of Khomeini.
Birth of the communist movement in Iran
The history of the communist movement in Iran finds its origins with 19th, when the Marxisme was introduced for the first time by the intellectuals and the workmen, consequence of the rapid transformation of the country, passing from the Féodalisme to the Capitalisme with a fast development of the Industrie. Near to the Russia and the Azerbaïdjan, the North of Iram became the nerve center of Marxist propaganda and from the movement Social-démocrate, from multiple groups came thus the day in a few years.
The Communist party of Iran was created in June 1920 with Bandar-E Anzali, in the province of Gilan, fruit of the first Congress of the Iranian social democrats. Heidar Amou Oghly, which was one of the leaders of the Iranian constitutional revolution, became the general secretary of the new party. In same time, Mirza Kuchak Khan Jangali, another leader of the constitutional revolution, and leader of the revolutionary movement Jangali (movement of the foresters), establishes the Soviet republic of Gilan with the support of the Red Army .
The Great Britain, which dominated by its influence the dynasty Qajar of the Court of Teheran, sent its agents to infiltrate the movement Jangali in a plot carefully prepared to reverse the socialist République of Gilan and the Iranian Communist party. The successful plot, the communist movement was prohibited and persecuted by the central government. The Communists and social democrats plunged in clandestinity once again. With beginning of the year 20, the dynasty Qajar crumbled, and the Shah Reza reached the throne in 1925, establishing the dynasty Pahlavi. The new Shah of Iran introduced many reforms, like the limitation of the capacity of the Shiite clergy, but establishes in same time an authoritative dictatorship.
Foundation of the Tudeh partyThe allied invasion of the Perse corridor of 1941 to 1942 resulted in the end of the reign of the Shah Reza and its exile forced into South Africa. Many political prisoners were released and under this new atmosphere, the nationalist groups and socialist refleurirent. September 29th 1941, the Toudeh party was officially created, with Soleiman Mohsen Eskandari at its head.
In 1944, the party took part in the 14th parliamentary elections and eights of its candidates were elected. From there, the number of members of the party multiplied by ten and became one of the main forces in the Iranian political life. Nevertheless, in 1949, the party was sanctioned for an attempt missed by assassination on the person of the Shah, successor of the precedent, and was thus prohibited. The party continued to function clandestinely during a moment before being legalized in the Fifties.
In 1951, Mohammad Mossadegh was appointed Prime Minister by the Shah and establishes an alliance with the nationalist movement, the Front National of Iran and the Toudeh Party. Mossadegh undertook the nationalization of oil and introduced many socialist reforms, using the massive profits coming from oil. These profits in the beginning were drained by the British government, through the Company Anglo-Iranian woman of Oil (now British Petroleum, BP). In 1953, agents of the British secret services and the CIA helped the general with the Zahedi retirement and colonel Nassir to foment a coup d'etat against Mossadegh which was forced to leave its post of Prime Minister.
The debate was not closed, as for knowing if the intervention of the United States and the British were justified by the fear of seeing Iran entering the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union. At all events, it is in this manner that they justified officially their support for the generals. Others think rather than the coup d'etat was useful before very regaining control on nationalized Iranian oil. After the blow, it is Mohammad Reza Pahlavi which could take again the capacity and restore a dictatorship, to prohibit the majority of the political parts, including the party of Mossadegh, the Front National, which like Toudeh, continued to function under clandestinity.
In 1955, many soldiers of the Iranian army suspectés to be members of the Toudeh party were stopped and carried out. At the same time, various internal problems made surface and the direction of the party was suspecté to work against the base of the party. The party was thus weakened vis-a-vis the attacks of the Shah and declined. The Central committee of the Party was reorganized at the end of the Fifties.
In 1965, the party dealt with second scission between the majority of the organization and faction which was for the armed struggle against the government of the Shah by arming the tribes with the South of Iran. The unit of the party was found three years later.
In 1966, several members of the party, including Ali Khavari and Parviz Hekmatioo of the Central committee, and Asef Razmdideh and Saber Mohammadzadeh, were stopped and condemned to be carried out. This event caused the agitation of the international community, of many demonstrations and hunger strikes forced the government to reduce the sorrows to imprisonment with life. These events created a mediatization and strong sympathy to the fight of the workers in Iran and allowed the unification of the party. The party was as from this moment a pillar of the clandestine opposition to the mode and helped to pave the way with the Iranian Révolution of 1978.
Role in the crisis of Azerbaïdjan
See also: Crisis irano-Soviet
Prohibition of the party under Mohammad Reza Shah
Iranian revolutionWith beginning of the year 70, a movement of guerilla in the North of Iran, in the province of Mazandaran, started. These years were also the period of development of demonstrations and strikes working, and the universities became the hearth of the revolutionary militancy. The Toudeh party increased its militant activities drastiquement, recruiting many young people and organizing regional committees.
After the revolution, many political prisoners were slackened, and the Party Toudeh and other left organizations could take part in the parliamentary elections and presidential for the first time since many years. Nevertheless, the majority of the seats was carried by the Republican Islamic party, of Ayatollah Beheshti the marginalized, and nationalists and Socialists. The president lately elected, Abolhassan Banished Sadr, a while short to Khomeini, was in the same time of the way by the revolution and was opposed to the domination clergy and religious factions in the political life.
In 1981, Majlis, dominated by the Republican Islamic party, forced Bani Sadr to leave her functions, which initiated a wave of protest and demonstrations of all the layers of the company. Bani Sadr had later to leave the country. Armed revolutionary local committees faithful to Khomeini, called Pasdaran, adopted thousands of young people and militants of the movements on the left and nationalists, many will be judged under the Ayatollah Sadeq Khalkhali, of which the nickname was “the judge pendor”, the great majority will be carried out.
Wanting to benefit from the situation, being given the number of eliminated movements rivals of Toudeh, the direction of the Toudeh Party decided to take part in the new mode and to collaborate with the clergy. It was a failure, and in 1982, the direction of the party was arrested and imprisoned, and later, more than 5000 members and sympathizers of the party were also stopped. The party ends up being prohibited.
Result of these successive purgings, the party little by little burst, with a big number of militants leaving in exile, while others renonçaient with Communism and were reconciled with the Islamic Republic. During these years, thousands of political prisoners, including Tudeh party, were condemned to died and were carried out.
Nevertheless, the party after a fashion survived and continuous to operate in a clandestine way in Iran, with a new Central committee, elected in 1992, in exile. The party is carried out by Ali Khavari.
Legal statute todayToday, the majority of the members of the party are in exile, even if active members remained in Iran. The party is officially prohibited and is not tolerated. The individuals suspectés to be affiliated to movements Communist or Socialist risk the imprisonment or the execution.
- constitutional Revolution of Iran
- Movement constitutionnalist of socialist Gilan
- Republic of Gilan
- the official site of the Toudeh Party of Iran
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