The truck is a vehicle Automobile with wheels intended for Transport er of the Marchandise S. the truck driver (road) or truck-driver (camionneuse) has as a task the control of a truck.
HistoryIn the French language, the word “truck” indicates initially a “very small pin” . From its 6th edition (1832-5), the Dictionnaire of the French Academy adds that “truck says also species of small cart or dray, usually trailed by a horse or two men” . Before that, Littré of defines as a Cart whose wheels have very little height (but also like a “vase of ground being used to water the paint” . Truck indicates also at the time: a “ small head of thistle to card” , and still a “ Shoe of child” . Littré specified that the word also could be written “Chamion” and “gomion” in XVIème century. Littré regards the etymology of the word as unknown factor, but the lexicon of Corblet estimates that truck, old in the language, is a Picardy word passed in French. Campolus and camuleus, of low-Latin who mean carriage evoke the radical camwood (perhaps Latin cama; reads very low). Spanish cama meant at the same time low bed and the bottom of a carriage. The Am Marcellin chamuleus, was a kind of sledge, very low car. In 1932, the dictionary of the Academy defines the truck as “Species of low cart and door which is used for transport of the parcels, the stones, the barrels. Horse truck. Automobile truck. Truck of hiring” . “It indicates also the low Tank on wheels with which the masons transport the stones of size” and it is called also “Dray” .
Historically, it is the Fardier of Cugnot (the dray is a carriage which is used to transport a " fardeau"), created in 1769, which seems the first motorized vehicle able to transport several tons of loading. The first modern truck would be that invented in 1898 by Gottlieb Daimler. At the same time, the manufacturer of Bordeaux Valentine Purrey had produced a truck with vapor whose sugar refineries Say will order 34 specimens.
Several manufacturers, among whom Marius Berliet, will produce then this type of vehicle which will develop with the rate/rhythm of many technical innovations: wheels dual in 1908, transmission, braking, suspension, etc
Among the famous brands of trucks, a great part are European like Renault Trucks (in the past Berliet - Saviem, then RVI, now share of the Volvo group) in France, DAF Trucks in the Netherlands, Iveco in Italy, Volvo and Scania in Sweden, MAN AG and Mercedes-Benz in Germany and Steyr in Austria.
In the United States, the principal marks are Chevrolet, Ford trucks, GMC trucks for the trucks of average range, the trucks light and the Pick-up Trucks; and for the heavy trucks: Freightliner LLC, International trucks, Kenworth, Mack Trucks, Peterbilt, Sterling trucks like Western Star.
A truck runs on average 149.256 km/an to France according to INSEE. It should be noted that this mileage is rather theoretical since a truck driver average or long distance can carry out more than ten thousand kilometers per month - 120.000 kilometers per annum -, is based on the distances covered by vehicles which are not that heavy trucks, nor assigned to the public transport of goods (statistical all confused tendencies), and also includes vehicles which all are not in service (vehicles of occasion, etc). One distinguishes private transport and carriage for hire or reward. The conveyers for hire or reward have a transport activity generally more intense than the companies which use one or more truck (S) for their own account, which makes any statistics total rather difficult to interprêter, as soon as it is about distance covered by a truck.
Models and configurationsThe trucks are declined in multiple models according to the type of transported goods. They must conform to very precise regulations. In France, one also speaks about Heavy truck (authorized Total weight charges (PTAC) with it higher than 3,5 ton S).
There exist several possible configurations:
- a tractor to which a Semi-remorque is hung.
- a carrier to which a trailer is hung sometimes.
The largest trucks are called in France “heavy loads” when they must circulate on roads open to public circulation whereas they exceed the dimensions or the tonnages authorized by the Highway code.
In Australia circulate of the “road trains” of one hundred forty tons. In Sweden circulate of the Eco combi S which can transport ⅓ of more than goods (in volume as in mass) that a semitrailer conventional. They are currently in phase of test in certain countries of the EU, like the the Netherlands or the Germany.
Specific safety devices
In France and Europe:
- Axle X with Wheel S twinned: from a certain tonnage, four Tire S by axle instead of two for a Car;
- obligatory annual Technical control; technical control of the heavy vehicles
- obligatory Presence of an Extinguishing ;
- Time of control limited uninterrupted with obligatory rest for the drivers governed by a European law (n°3820/85 of the council of December 20th, 1985), controlled by a recording disc (Chronotachygraphe), this device was replaced by a digital recorder since March 2006 with use of a chart driver;
- Bars anti-embedding with before and with the back;
- side Protections between the Axle X (bars anti-cyclists) in order to avoid the fall of two-wheeled vehicle under the wheels of the truck.
- Rear view mirrors specific said " Large angle" in order to reduce the dead angles. " Antéviseur" : Rear view mirror in front of the cabin to see the pedestrians in front of the vehicle. In the towns of Belgium and the Netherlands, rear view mirror of low accosting, to see bicycles and low cars, on the right of vehicle. http://www.ibsr.be/dispatch.wcs?uri=709175144&action=viewStream&language=fr
Types of trucksOne distinguishes the Porteur S the tractor S.
The carriers have on the same frame the cabin and a volume of loading to transport the goods. This volume can be a plate, a cistern, a bucket, a flexible case (Savoyard or tautliner), a rigid case (van), etc These last can be removable. A trailer can be harnessed to increase the capacity of the vehicle, in this case the carrying vehicle + trailer names a truck-trailer. Many carriers are vehicles of urban or regional delivery.
The tractors are the driving part including/understanding the cabin and a frame to which one harnesses a Semi-remorque charged with the goods. There are various types: cistern, refrigerating, covered, plate, Savoyard, carry containers, carry glass, etc One second trailer or a second semitrailer can be added according to the power available and of the requirements Logistique S, and of course of the regulation (limits of load and dimensions). In this case (several trailers or semitrailers), the vehicle names a double train or a éco-combi.
As soon as a trailer or a semitrailer (or several) is harnessed with a tractor or a carrier, the technical term which defines the unit is: Together articulated .
Tractor or Maxicode semitrailerThe Maxicode term defines the vehicles approved by the administration as vehicles ready to transport the maximum loadings authorized by the highway code. A tractor road or carrying small or average range, just like a trailer or a semitrailer of small or average tonnage, are not a Maxicode vehicle. Within the limits of its homologation, a vehicle Maxicode (tractor, or semitrailer) can be used for exceptional transport (heavy loads) or indivisible masses. (heavy loads and dimensions higher than the standard vehicles}. - to see higher exceptional convoys
One adapts also the trucks to specific activities: loading, unloading and transport of sawlog or other materials (sands, powders, liquids, scrap metals intended for the reprocessing, residues mineral or inert organics or in decomposition). One then equips them with cranes, compressors or pumps to raise the loads, to aspire them or push them towards their stock room or of use.
Manufacturers of trucks of the world
- DAF Netherlands - group Paccar
- Ford trucks
- Freightliner LLC - Freightliner trucks - group DaimlerChrysler company Germany
- GMC trucks
- Henschel Germany
- Hino trucks Japan - group Toyota International Japan
- Isuzu Trucks Japan
- Iveco Italy
- Kamaz Russia
- the Ural Russia
- Kenworth - group Paccar
- Leyland the United Kingdom - group Paccar
- Man Germany
- Mercedes Germany
- Pacific Canada
- Renault Trucks FranceSuède
- Saviem France
- Ford Otosan Turkey
- Scania Sweden
- Sterling trucks - Freightliner trucks - group DaimlerChrysler company Germany
- Tatra Slovakia
- Unimog Germany
- Volvo Sweden
- Western Star
Manufacturers of disappeared trucks
- “ Beautiful as a truck ” is a popular expression which is not only due to Marguerite Duras.
- Van of fire
- Transport of dangerous matters
- Truck radiocontrolled
- pressurized Transporters
- See a diagram detailed on a trailer truck
- Dictionary speech English/French truck drivers - French/English
- Inventive of the push rod bucket for truck carrying or semitrailer
- List the contructeurs of vehicles
|Random links:||Park of Portugal | Second house of Montmorency-Laval | Kapidžija | Will Bynum | Leyrenne | Seizième_note|