Trieste (in the past Latin Tergeste in ), is a town of Italy, located on the Adriatic Sea at the extreme is Plaine Po and near the Slovenien border . It is the chief town of the area of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, and of the province éponyme. It counts 209 000 inhabitants (2005), Triestian . The resources of the city are above all due to the international port, rival of that of Venice, like with the linked activities: shipyards, iron and steel industry, refineries of Oil.
With the the Middle Ages, Trieste becomes an important commercial crossroads. In 1382, it is given to Léopold III of Habsbourg, duke of Austria, and becomes a free port, only maritime outlet of the Austrian empire. Into the 19th century, it is integrated into the Provinces illyriennes (1809 - 1814), then becomes again Austrian and knows one period of great prosperity, particularly after the construction of the railway line Vienna-Trieste (finished in 1857). At the end of the 19th century, it is a large cosmopolitan city which lodge artists like James Joyce, and Italo Svevo. Its Italian inhabitants are dissatisfied to however be under Austrian domination and aspire to join the Italy - it is what is called the Irrédentisme.
In 1921, after the First World War which breaks the Empire Austro-Hungarian, Trieste is returned to the Italy, at the same time as the others grounds irrédentes attached to Italy. The port loses its importance quickly and enters a deep economic crisis. It was used as a basis for the birth of the left fascistic Italian (in proportion, the greatest number of members are of Trieste and its area since 1922). The city is taken by the Germans (October 1st 1943) who open there sadly celebrates camp (especially transit but later also of elimination) of the Risiera di San Sabba (rice mill of San Sabba, in an industrial park) - where were imprisoned, before being transferred 12 to 15.000 people, especially of the Jews but also of the partisans, Slavic, resistant Italian.
May 1st 1945, the communist partisans of Tito (Yugoslav IVe armed) enter to Trieste to the cries of “ Trst I naš ”, Trieste is with us.
The following day, May 2nd, the 2nd New Zealand division of the general Bernard Freyberg also enters downtown. The Yugoslavians there remain during 40 days and assassinate many Italians (fascistic and antifascists) using the foibe and even the Nazi camp of Risiera.
In 1947, the treaty of Paris creates a “free Territoire of Trieste” under control of UNO, cut in two zones, one Anglo-American, with 311.000 hab. including/understanding the town of Trieste (zone A), the other Yugoslavian with 54.000 hab. and including/understanding the town of Capodistria (Koper), (zone B).
The majority of the originating population (40.000 Italians, but also of the Croats and Sloveniens) give up the zone B between 1947 and 1956, pushed by the Yugoslav climate of terror created by the massacres of the foibe and other intimidations. The October 26th 1954, the allied zone (left A) turns over to the Italy.
Trieste is a city with rather open mentality, from its geographical position of border and of the historical vicissitudes which made of them the crossroads of many languages and cultures. In fact, almost all the religious ethnicities and all movements have a specific place of worship to with it. In the town of Trieste even one currently counts beside the Italians a hundred minority ethnicities, so much already present through the history (Serbe S, Slovenien S, Rumanian S, Greek S, German S, Croatian S) that more recently installed (Albanian, Chinese, Africans, South-Americans).
Through the vast communal territory of Trieste, which extends to the border with Slovenia, one meets also suburbs and localities of the karstic high-plate in which a community of language and Slovenien culture lives (5% of the communal population according to the census of 1971), which has its own school network. It should in addition be noted that on the other side of the border is an Italian community istrienne which maintains bonds with Italy, and more particularly with Trieste which accommodated after the Second world war of many Italian refugees ( profughi , esuli ) of Istrie and Dalmatie, of the areas become Yugoslav in 1945.
Before the First World War, the community of German language exceeded the 5% of the population and that of Slovenien language reached the 24,80% (census of 1910). The first then almost disappeared and the second was reduced. Currently, in the urban center they were numerically exceeded by other communities, in particular the Chinese, the Serb ones and the Croats.
Mathilde-Létizia Bonaparte (1820 - 1904)
- Napoleon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte (1822 - 1891)
- Jerome Napoleon Charles Bonaparte (1814-1847) Prince of Montfort
- Guglielmo Oberdan, Italian irredentist (1858 - 1882)
- Italo Svevo, writer (1861 - 1928)
- James Joyce, writer (1882 - 1941)
- Vladimir Bartol, writer (1903 - 1967)
- Mauro Maur, clarinettist (*1958)
- Stendhal, French Consul to Trieste in 1831
- Louis-El Salvador of Habsbourg-Lorraine (1847-1915), Austrian geographer (estival residence 1876-1914 in Trieste)
- Fedora Barbieri (1920-2003), singer
- Vladimir Bartol (1903-1967), writer
- Roberto Bazlen (1902-1965), writer
- Pietro Bonomo (1458-1546), bishop of Trieste and Vienna, literary
- Antonio Caccia (1829-1893), Swiss writer
- Piero Cappuccilli (1929-2005), singer
- Luigi Carnera (1875-1962), boxer
- Leo Castelli (1907-1999), galerist and merchant of American art born in Trieste.
- Walter Freiherr von Czoernig-Czernhausen (1883-1945), speleologist
- Paul Henreid (1908-1992), actor (Casablanca) and manager
- Vinzenz Bronzin, (1872-1970), mathematical
- Samuel David Luzzatto (1800-1865), poet
- Claudio Magris (*1939), writer, Germanist
- Josip Mandic (1883-1959), musician
- Alexander Mildewed (1879-1935), actor
- Richard Mollier (1863-1935), physical
- Boris Pahor (*1913), writer
- Victor de Sabata (1892-1967) direct and musician
- Umberto Sheba (1883-1957), poet
- Giorgio Strehler (1921-1997), manager
- Giani Stuparich, novelist (1891-1961)
- Mutius von Tommasini (1794-1879), botanical
- Famille Janesich famous jeweller world, since 1835
Communes borderingDuino-Aurisina, Monrupino, Muggia, San Dorligo della Valle, Sesana ( Sežana ) (SLO), Sgonico
Massacre of the foibe
- free Territory of Trieste
- List of the Italian cities of more than 25.000 inhabitants
- It Piccolo and Primorski Dnevnik (newspapers of Trieste)
the Encyclopedia of the Agora: Trieste
Beats-smg: Triests Simple: Trieste
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