Trajan (Latin: Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus , officially IMPERATOR•CAESAR•DIVI•NERVAE•FILIVS•NERVA•TRAIANVS•OPTIMVS•AVGVSTVS•GERMANICVS•DACICVS•PARTHICVS) is a Roman Emperor born probably on September 18th, 53 with Italica in Bétique (Spain current) and died on August 7th, 117 with Seliki (Cilicie). It is during its reign that the Romain Empire had more territorial large surface.
Rise towards the capacity
Trajan starts a military career then: the command of the 7th legion is entrusted to him between 86 and 89 to go to subdue the rising of Antonius Saturninus in Germanie higher. It appears effective and honest there with regard to Domitien, which is worth to him to be named consul in 91. One does not hesitate to entrust responsibilities more and more to him: in 97, it obtains the command of the three legions which form the army of the lower Germanie.
The successor of Domitien to the head of the empire, Nerva, was a rather old man, whose principal merit was not to have children, the hereditary nominations at Flaviens having left bad memories. The Praetorian thus thought of easily being able to handle it. They had thus placed it there “of transition”, but Nerva took everyone of runs while adopting Trajan on October 28th, 97 and while indicating it like césar (successor).
In 98, Trajan occupies the throne to replace Nerva. It goes up there without problem because the people for his simplicity and his attention towards the Senate like it.
Beginnings of the Emperor
To died of Nerva beginning 98, Trajan gives Germanic the higher than Lucius Iulius Ursus Servianus and succeeds to him. It is the first emperor not-Roman. Its reign starts well: it breaks with the violence of Domitien and maintains a policy close to the Senate, which ensures a certain popularity quickly to him. Years 97 with 101, it chooses a peaceful policy rather and deals especially with civil cases. Considering it was chosen, because adopted and not imposed by heredity, it stresses the constitutional nature of its capacity. The Senate will grant the title until him of optimus princeps (literally, “the best emperor”). It defines the ordinary position of the Roman authorities vis-a-vis the Christians, consistent continuing them and condemning if those disturb the law and order (recall: the refusal of the Christians to sacrifice to the Roman gods and in particular to the imperial Worship consistue an obstacle with the law and order).
With its advent, Trajan does not precipitate in Rome. It remains on the Rhine and prefers to make sure fidelity of the armies. Its adventus , reception triumphal in the honor of the new emperor, takes place about the summer 105.
In the past, under Domitien for example, there was a multiplication of the festivals. The conquest of Dacie (see low) makes it possible the emperor to give up coronary gold.
Dacie offers exploitable gold mines. The mining production is intensified in other parts of the Empire, as in Spain. Trajan modifies the quantity of gold in the parts.
Trajan enters a policy of constructions to Rome. New a forum is completed; it is the last of the imperial series. One builds also a basilica for justice, two libraries (Latin and Greek), the temple of divine Nerva, large a walked. The site of the Domus aurea of Néron is used for thermal baths.
A new basin is dug in the port of Ostie. That going back to Claude was too small. The arm of the Tiber is duplicated to avoid the floods and to facilitate the maritime transport between Rome and Ostie.
Trajan gives Congiaire S (silver distributions or in kind certain event). The children of poor citizens families receive an financial aid provided by the interests from approximately 5% on loans granted Italian small holders. They are kinds of allowances. This system is known under the name of fed .
Government of the provinces
Trajan would have exchanged a correspondence with Pline the Young person, governor from 111 to 113 of the Bridge-Bithynie. A censure seems to be operated on the letters. It is possible that it is for strategic reasons. Trajan can already wish to conquer the Parthian Empire. It is then necessary to pacify the province to ensure the backs of the army in the event of war.
This correspondence was regarded a long time as a medieval forgery: Sidoine Apollinaire (430-486) known as expressly in his correspondence that Pline published nine volumes of letters (that of Pline and Trajan being supposed being the tenth book of this collection). However more recent studies leave little doubt about the authenticity of this correspondence.
The emperor develops the romanisation of the Empire. The veterans, former soldiers, are incited with the creation of a colony.
The statute of city evolves/moves. Municipal promotions make it possible to make evolve/move their legal status. Thus, a city pérégrine can become a municipe of Latin right, with the progression of its town planning. Then in ten years, to become municipe of Roman law. The number of Roman citizens thus increases.
Wars against Daces
During the first war against the Daces (101-102), Trajan engages twelve legions, almost half of the army. Thus, the emperor joins together also the auxiliary Corps, the Praetorian Cohorte, as well as a river fleet charged to hold the Danube. The Romans occupy the country after two years of hard combat. Daces must provide soldiers, machines of war and shave their fortifications. Trajan receives the title Dacicus Maximus thus. But Décébale, king of Daces, does not observe the conditions.
Trajan strengthens the Northern border on the level of the the Danube. The tribe of the Iazyges is judged encircled by these fortifications and is combined in Décébale. From 105 to 107, the second war against Daces takes place. It is at the time of this war which its favorite general illustrated the Moor Lusius Quietus that Trajan wished to have for successor. Décébale flees in Transylvania. In 106, Daces are overcome, Décébale commits suicide and the Dacie becomes imperial province.
The Colonne Trajane shows us 155 episodes of the war against Daces. It is an invaluable monument which provides us many information on the uniforms and the weapons of war.
Conquest of Arabia
Part of territory between Palestine and the south-east of Egypt is not controlled by Rome, but by Arab people, the Nabatéens. Cornelius Palma, legate of Syria, directs the countryside against the kingdom nabatéen from 105 to 106. The province of Arabia is created. A legion stations in the capital: Bostra. The Eastern borders are reinforced.
The countryside at Parthes
Trajan wants to equalize Alexandre Large the and to protect the border from the too vulnerable Euphrate. In 109/110, the king of Parthes dies: its successor Chosroès place on the throne Arménie N Pfartamasiris, which does not have the approval of the Romans. Considering that it is a violation of the compromise established with Néron, Trajan enters to shift against Parthes in October 113. As of 114, the Arménie is conquered and annexed officially and Pfartamasiris flees. Trajan benefits from it to reinforce the links with its allies of the the Caucasus.
End of the reign
The years which follow are rather badly known: it is known that Trajan makes operations in Mésopotamie in 114/115. In 116, it conquers the Assyrie and the Babylonia, and descends with its two armies until the Persian Gulf.
But Parthes are organized, and they raise the people subjected to Rome, in particular the Jews. The revolt quickly gains ground, Assyrie is quickly lost. Trajan then tries to give Babylonia to a sovereign marionette, Pfartamasphates, but that badly dissimulates the failure of the annexation which it projected. In 117, the revolt spreads: the East is on fire. Trajan returns towards the Occident, leaving it to its legate to bring back the army.
Trajan dies of Apoplexie, but according to other sources, one thinks that he died of exhaustion to the return of a military forwarding of the East into 117. He dies in Sélinonte in Cilicie (current Turkey) on August 18th, 117. Almost immediately, all its conquests are lost.
Trajan thus marks its principat by its good administration and its military experiment.
The enrichment of the imperial treasure thanks to the conquests of Trajan allowed remarkable architectural achievements:
- the Forum of Trajan builds with the spoils of the dacic wars. It is the vastest forum of Rome. It was composed of a great place with an equestrian statue of the emperor, a temple dedicated to Trajan, a basilica (the basilica ulpia ) and two libraries;
- the Column Trajane, on the forum of Trajan, intended to collect ashes of the emperor and decorated with low-relief in spiral;
- Gone of Trajan, vast shopping mall near its forum;
- the Thermal baths of Trajan, immense complex of Roman Thermal baths and leisure;
- the Arc of Bénévent;
Names and titles
53, is born MARCVS•VLPIVS•TRAIANVS
- 97, adopted by Nerva: CAESAR•DIVI•NERVAE•FILIVS•NERVA•TRAIANVS•GERMANICVS
- 98, reaches the Empire: IMPERATOR•CAESAR•DIVI•NERVAE•FILIVS•NERVA•TRAIANVS•AVGVSTVS•GERMANICVS
- 102, takes the title of Dacicus : IMPERATOR•CAESAR•DIVI•NERVAE•FILIVS•NERVA•TRAIANVS•AVGVSTVS•GERMANICVS•DACICVS
- 114, takes the title of Parthicus : IMPERATOR•CAESAR•DIVI•NERVAE•FILIVS•NERVA•TRAIANVS•AVGVSTVS•GERMANICVS•DACICVS•PARTHICVS
- 114, the Sénat decrees to him the title of Optimus : IMPERATOR•CAESAR•DIVI•NERVAE•FILIVS•NERVA•TRAIANVS•OPTIMVS•AVGVSTVS•GERMANICVS•DACICVS•PARTHICVS
Titles and magistratures
- Lord's Prayer patriae in 98;
- Pontifex maximus in 98;
- Acclaimed Imperator in 98, 101, 102, 105, 106, 113, 117;
- Holds the power tribunician starting from October 27th, 97, renewed in October 98, in October 99 and annually the December 10th until in 117.
Titulature with its death
With its death in 117 its titulature was:
- IMPERATOR•CAESAR•DIVI•NERVAE•FILIVS•NERVA•TRAIANVS•OPTIMVS•AVGVSTVS•GERMANICVS•DACICVS•PARTHICVS, PONTIFEX•MAXIMVS, TRIBVNICIAE•POTESTATIS•XXI, IMPERATOR•XIII, CONSVL•VI, LORD'S PRAYER•PATRIAE
Trajan was divinized by the Sénat.
|Random links:||Left Saint-Amand-the-Water-Bank canton | Forest of Longuenée | ㅜ | Tetrachondraceae | Billère Handball|