Origins of the word
In biologyAt the origin the term applied to biology then it took the direction of an at the same time female and male predisposition bio-psychological specific to any human being. This predisposition does not forecast of anything the sexual conduits strictly speaking. It should not be confused with the androgyny, i.e. an human being whose appearance does not make it possible to decide with which sex it belongs. When a person is physically carrying the two sexes one speaks rather about hermaphrodite.
In PsychoanalysisOne distinguishes the bisexuality like behavior from the " bisexuality psychique" theorized in particular by Wilhelm Fliess and Freud which would be the unconscious psychic base of any human being. According to Freud in " Three tests on the sexual theory. " Psychoanalytical research is opposed with the greatest determination to the attempt to separate the homosexual ones from the other human beings as a particularized group. By studying other sexual excitations still that those which appear in a manifest way, she learns that all the men are capable of a homosexual object-choice and that they actually made this " choix" in the Unconscious . In fact, the connections of libidinaux feelings to people of the same sex do not play a least important part, as factors intervening in the normal psychic life, only those which are addressed to the opposite sex (...). Much earlier, it is the independence of the object-choice with respect to the sex of the object, freedom to have male or female objects indifferently - such as one observes it in childhood, in the primitive states and at moved back times of the history, that the psychoanalysis regards as bases original from which develop, following a restriction in a direction or the other, the normal type as well as the inversé." type; The bisexual ones can have simultaneous relations with the partners of any sex, practice the Monogamie in series with partners of one or the other sex, to have relations with partners of only one sex or to practice the Chasteté. The bisexuality refers to the Désir S and the concept of oneself, not necessarily with the behavior.
Sexual orientation or acted behavior
In its current direction it indicates the conduits and the sexual attraction ou/et sentimental for people of the two sexes, either simultaneously or alternatively. From this point of view, the bisexual identity would rest on cultural standards and prejudices. The Biphobie is a tendency to refuse with bisexual the feeling in love for a single individual, whereas he asserts his attraction for the two sexes while choosing of living with only one sexuée entity.
The acted bisexuality is a Sexual orientation characterized by the Amour Romantique and/or the Sexual desire for the members of the two sexes, in contrast with the Homosexualité, the Hétérosexualité, and the Asexualité.
The acted bisexuality would define a person who is neither exclusively hétérosexuelle, nor exclusively homosexual, but whose preference is typically repressed (see Alfred Kinsey). Many bisexual regard as gay S or Lesbienne S (or part of the community of LGBT).
The bisexual orientation is between the two sexual orientations of homosexuality and heterosexuality and can be a single combination of characteristics. Another point of view of the bisexuality is that homosexuality and the heterosexuality are monosexualities, while the bisexuality includes/understands all the monosexuelles orientations.
Pansexuel, omnisexuel and pomosexuel (“post-modern” - sexual) are Néologisme S which also refer to people who are attracted by more than one sex. Instead of sexual attraction “of both” or “Bi”, they refer to attraction with all or “omni” and are often used by those which wish to express their comprehension and their acceptance of all possibilities of kind including Transgenre and Intersexe. Pansexualism includes sometimes an attraction for the less current sexual activities, such as BDSM. Trysexual (sometimes “trisexuel”) is a neologism and a word game on “bisexual” and English to try “to test”. It is used as a term amusing for somebody who will test any sexual experiment at least once. The people who are not bisexual are either “monosexuels” (attracted by only one sex) or asexual (attracted by any sex).
Prevalence of the bisexuality in the broad sense
Some studies, in particular the sexual Behavior of the human male (1948) and the sexual Comportement of the human female (1953) of Alfred Kinsey tend to prove that a vast majority does not have an sexual orientation as sliced as it appears to with it. The cases of strict Hétérosexualité or strict Homosexualité would be relatively rare (between 5-10% according to Kinsey) and the cases of real indetermination (the bisexuality " pure") rarer still (lower than 1%). The identification with a behavior or an sexual orientation would concern the social domain purely according to the studies of Kinsey.
Scale of Kinsey
Bisexuality in the History
The bisexuality has a universal history, according to the majority of the historical and literary sources. People in the majority of the known companies showed variables degrees of bisexuality and this without this behavior being considered to be abnormal. The majority of the bisexual relations were attached either to one period of the life (as for the Pédérastie in the Antiquité or the Shudo in the pre-modern Japan), or with a third kind (as for the Two-Spirits North-Amerindians or the Bacchá S of Central Asia). The behaviors heterosexuals and homosexual male, although also present, seem to constitute exceptions everywhere, except in the companies influenced by the abrahamic religions (Judaïsme, Islam and Christianisme), where the bisexual and homosexual behaviors are strongly repressed and the encouraged heterosexuality. The majority of what one calls homosexuality in the old cultures are in fact a form of bisexuality.
The history of the female acted bisexuality is more difficult to establish, insofar as the companies the best known ones were generally patriarchal, for which the sources which one lays out emanate mainly from men.
In the ancient Greece, it seems that the men had successively homosexual behavior, bisexual then mainly heterosexual. Homosexuality was associated with the Adolescence, followed by a phase of bisexuality characterized by relations pederasts, following what the adult man married, gave birth to and adopted a behavior mainly heterosexual. The ancient Rome, the Arab Countries (including today), the China and the Japan also know similar models of behavior. The most famous case is without any doubt that of Alexandre Large the which had many women, but also maintained the relations with at least two men, to of which his/her friend close Héphaestion. But the bisexual behaviors were also current at the Roman Emperors and Chinese, or at the Shogun Japanese.
One must note that the terms of heterosexuality, bisexuality, of homosexuality and generally of Sexual orientation correspond to modern sociological constructions which are not inevitably adapted in these historical contexts. In the majority of the old companies, the behaviors could be regarded as homosexual without one for using such terms as much.
Old the Sparte tolerated the relations between adult men and young men, since these men ended up marrying a woman and giving birth to. The Spartans thought that the physical relations between Soldat S tested and beginners were likely to reinforce honesty with the combat and encouraged the heroic behaviors because the men competed to impress their lovers. When the young soldier exceeded a certain age, the sexual relationships were supposed to cease, but one is unaware of if that were really respected.
In the Greek rest of the world on the other hand, if the Pédérastie were largely accepted, the fact that the relation between the ripe man and the young man perdure was severely condemned by the company, which considered that the adult misused the young man then.
In addition, the bisexuality holds an important place in the Greek Mythologie.
The Middle East and Central Asia
The Moslem civilization place the love ( Ichq ) like the absolute good, whatever the kind to be it liked, although the behaviors opposite with the Islam are condemned. The attraction of a man for the beauty of the young men is generally regarded there as normal. The lawyer hanbalist Ibn Al-Jawzi (about 1200) would have thus said: That which affirm that it does not test any desire with the sight of the fine young men or young men is a liar, and if what it said were true, it would be an animal and not an human being .
Several religious texts explicitly evoke this temptation, which they consider stronger than attraction for the women, and the danger to yield to it. Other texts, more discussed, teach that the love for the young boys is one of the ways towards the communion with God. The loves of young boys is a recurring subject in the Muslim art and in particular in poetry, of the Middle Ages at the beginning of. Among these artists, one finds in particular the poets Abu Nuwas, Hafez and Omar Khayyam as well as the Persan painter Reza Abbasi. Certain artists contravened thus the Koranic prohibition of the liwat (the Sodomie between males, regarded as one fished major), others avoided it by describing not consumed sexual relationships.
Fished liwat can be punished of death. The Coran requires however that the transgression be attested by four men, or eight women, to condemn a marked man of liwat . The majority of the homosexual behaviors are thus not punished, and the men can have homosexual relations, since they marry and found a family inter alia social obligations. These practices are however regarded as less frequent today than in the past, because of strong exposure of the Muslim world to Western morals from. The fact of declaring itself homosexual openly would be regarded as unacceptable in the majority of the Moslem countries.
Bisexuality in the Occidental culture
The gays and lesbians sometimes adopted the label “bisexual (it)” in order to keep the privilege of the heterosexuality. In the generally accepted idea rises that all those which are identified as bisexual (it) are actually gays or lesbians being afraid to admit it. This often obvious false idea in the popular culture, in the Film S, the Television and the Musique explains one of the proverbs of the gay culture: “Bi now, gay later”.
In spite of the common false ideas, the bisexuality does not require that a person be also attracted with the two sexes. In fact, people who have a distinct but nonexclusive preference for a sex more than other can and often are identified like bisexual. Some recent studies, including one by researchers Gerulf Rieger, Meredith L. Chivers, and J. Michael Bailey, which drew the attention of media in 2005, claimed to note that the bisexuality is extremely rare, and perhaps non-existent, at the men. Some apart from the scientific world criticized that such studies typically functioned of the claim that a person is only really bisexual if him or it exhibe of the answers practically equal of awakening to the opposite sex and the stimuli of even-sex, and has consequently isolated the identification even people whose model of exitation showed an average preference for a sex. Such a criticism would not apply in Rieger, Chivers, and the case of Bailey, because their study did not seek to rather determine if the men who claimed to be Bisexuels had equal rates of stimulation towards the men and the women, the conclusions of the study were based on a comparison between the models of awakening of the bisexual men and the homosexual men or heterosexuals. The results stated significantly that the men who claimed to be bisexual had the results which matched upwards with the homosexual men or the men heterosexuals.
Many bisexual feel true place neither in the gay community nor in the world heterosexual. Because they tend to remain invisible with the public (alive without drawing attention of the homosexual and hétérosexuelles companies), some bisexual (it) S formed their clean Communauté S and their own movements.
“Biphobie” is a neologism expressing the idea that people are either heterosexuals or homosexual, or indicating the disapproval of the bisexuality. The bisexual people can be also the target of Homophobie on behalf of heterosexual-the-S, and of Hétérophobie on behalf of homosexual.
The flag of the bisexual pride
For more visibility and to create a symbol for the gathering of the bisexual community, Michael Page created the Drapeau bisexual pride.
The bisexual flag has a pink line or red in top for homosexuality, a blue line in bottom for the heterosexuality and violet in the medium to represent the bisexuality, the purple one being the combination of the red and blue. The latter is smaller than the other, thus appearing the not-visibility of bisexual (it) the S in the company.
History of the flag of the bisexual pride by Michael Page (Source: The biflag (http://biflag.com)/Translated from English by http://bi-way.net)
the first flag of the bisexual pride was revealed on September 5th, 1998. The goal to create such a flag was to maximize the visibility of the bisexual ones.
Because of my implication like voluntary at Bi-Net the USA, it clearly appeared necessary to me to have a flag to return us visible in a distinct way as bisexual at the time of events celebrating the pride like at the time of gathering policies. At that time, there was, in my opinion, no bisexual representation which is rather high colors, or which was sufficiently proposed to be able instantaneously and in a durable way being recognized like a flag. There was not whereas the " Bi-angles" , a double reversed triangle, the symbol Bi made up of three rings, and various other representations left imagination of groups Bi buildings.
It is undeniable that many bisexual people supported the Gay movement and Lesbian since the riots of Stonewall in 1969, I can testify some. The main issue of bisexual remained their lack of visibility. It was the problem of homosexual and lesbians before 1969, because little of them were " left the placard".
In 1978, I became acquainted with Gilbert Baker of San Francisco in Italy at the time of World Pride 2000. It is him which created the flag arc in sky. Each color of this flag represents the homosexual community and lesbian in her diversity. This flag is from now on the uncontested symbol of the homosexual community and lesbian.
According to my personal experience, the large majority of the bisexual people is not recognized in the flag arc in sky, not more than in the pink triangle or the black triangle, the symbol lambda, or knocked with double edge. These symbols were regarded as homosexual representations and lesbians, which was their original intention. Seek the history of the creation of the flag arc in sky on Internet, and you will include/understand what I want to say.
I believe that the bisexual people need to gather around their own flag and symbols. I note besides that the GLBT (Gay, Lesbiennes, Bisexuels, Transgenre) need to work together as much as being affirmed like single components of equation GLBT.
By creating the flag of the pride Bi, I took again the colors of the " Bi-angle" by choosing those which were most attractive, namely the magenta, the color lavender and royal blue. Having chosen the colors, I decided to take the magenta to make the upper part of the flag and to give him 40% height. The color lavender which is the resultant of the mixture of the magenta and the royal blue would occupy the central part of the flag, on 20% height. Finally, the lower part occupying the 40% remainder, will be blue.
Symbolic system: The magenta represents attraction for the of the same people sex (homosexual and lesbians). Blue represents attraction for the people of opposite sex (heterosexuals). The color lavender which occupies the central part of the flag, and which is the result of the mixture of the two other colors represents attraction for the two sexes. For including/understanding the symbolism of this flag well, It should be known that subtlety lies in the fact that the color lavender is melted in an unperceivable way in the two other colors, recalling that in reality also, the bisexual people mix imperceptibly in the communities homosexual and hétérosexuelles, which is the cause of their lack of visibility.
Representations of the bisexuality in arts
Cinema: chronological catalog of films
- 1971 One Sunday like the others of John Schlesinger.
- 1975 the Best Way of going of Claude Miller.
- 1979 the Confusion of the feelings of Etienne Périer with Michel Piccoli and Pierre Malet.
- 1983 Predatory the of Tony Scott.
- 1988 Good-bye, I love you of Claude Bernard-Aubert.
- 1990 Henry and June of Philip Kaufman.
- 1992 the Nights deer of Cyril Collard.
- 1993 Two boys, a girl, three possibilities of Andrew Fleming.
- 1993 Crash landing of David Cronenberg.
- 1997 In extremis of Etienne Faure.
- 1997 Nowhere of Gregg Araki.
- 1998 Velvet Goldmine of Todd Haynes.
- 2000 the Confusion of the kinds of Ilan Duran Cohen.
- 2000 Barnie and its small contrarieties of Bruno Chiche.
- 2002 Embrassez which you will want Michel Blanc with Charlotte Rampling, Jacques Dutronc, Carole Bouquet.
- 2002 Frida of Julie Taymor.
- 2003 Alexandre of Oliver Stone.
- 2004 Eros therapy , comedy of Daniele Dubroux with Isabelle Carré, Catherine Frot, Melvil Poupaud, François Berléand, Julie Depardieu, Claire Nebout.
- 2004 University , dramatic comedy of Robert Dirtied.
- 2005 Both of Lisset Barcellos. Price of the best feature-length film of fiction of the 28th international festival of film of woman of Creteil.
- 2005 C.R.A.Z.Y. of Jean-Marc Vallée.
- 2005 the Secrecy of Brokeback Mountain , dramatic comedy of Ang Lee.
- 2005 Rent , musical comedy of Chris Colombus.
- 2006 I Don' T Want to Sleep Alone of Tsai Ming-liang.
- 2006 Shortbus , dramatic comedy of John Cameron Mitchell.
- 2007 Puccini and me of Maria Maggenti.
- 2007 the Love songs of Christophe Honore.
- 2007 the Witnesses of Andre Techine.
- obligatory Skirt , comedy of Nathalie Vierne, 2007.
- Michel Canesi and Jamil Rahmani, the syndrome of Lazare , editions of the Rock, 2006.
- John Flaherty-Cox, Paul , editions White, 2004.
- Julie Hilden, 3 , Actes Sud, 2004.
Data base and Manga
- Indigo blue . Drawing and scenario: Ebine Yamaji .
- Djinn . Scenario: Jean Dufaux and drawings: Anna Miralles.
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