The towards (of the Latin versus , “the furrow, the line of writing”, then “worms”, historically “what turns over to the line”) are a statement Linguistique subjected to formal constraints of a metric nature . Respect of such constraints, which can be implicit or explicit, will depend, in a culture given and to a given time, the recognition of a statement as worms.
In literary poetry, the worms is often locatable thanks to a return to the line independent of the edge of the page. The worms is characteristic of the Poésie (but any poetry is not inevitably versified). It is not necessary only the statement which constitutes worms merges with a Phrase: a sentence can extend on several towards and, conversely, only one worms can touch with several sentences. The Crossing-over, the rejection, the Against-rejection are cases where the organization of the worms deviates from the syntactic structure .
A concept difficult to defineThere infallibly does not exist intrinsic property which makes it possible to distinguish, and for all the cultures, the worms of the “not-towards”. When Maurice Grammont tries to define it as:
- “a linguistic element cash a given number of Syllable S, of which some are obligatorily accentuated and whose last assonates [[rhyme]] with the corresponding syllable of one or several others towards. ”
And the single chalk line of the marine trumpets .
This definition excludes in the same way the “verse free”, of which the number of syllables can not know any regularity.
In the absence of a better solution, it will be necessary well to be satisfied with the social judgment ( is famous towards all that is, more or less consensuellement, recognized like such) while endeavouring to clarify, for each culture, each period and each style, the metric constraints specific which are used as a basis for such a recognition. The stronger these metric constraints are, the more they will tend to act in their turn on the subjacent linguistic statement: inversions, curiosities syntactic or lexical, orthographical archaisms, licenses are as many elements which will help to identify worms like tel.
Towards and proseThe Prose is characterized by the absence of the metric constraints which make the worms: very stated which is not in worms is in prose, but it is always possible to forget that worms is worms and, therefore, to read it like prose.
In writing, prose is organized in paragraphs. Each worms is followed in theory of one return to the line. The graphic coherence of the worms is such as one often marks of it the first letter by a Majuscule, even if the word carrying it is not the first of a sentence. In the same way, if, for lack of place, one cannot write worms in entirety on a line, one announces it:
I am held on the threshold of the life and dead the lowered eyes
- empty handeds '' (Louis Aragon, fragment of “Epilog”, in the Poets )
The part rejected with the following line, not constituting new towards, is preceded by a right hook and is aligned on the right (or strongly shifted).
Grouping of the wormsOne tends to group the worms: in the Chanson de geste, a continuation, variable length, of worms dividing same the Assonnance is called a Laisse. In the lyric kinds, one will call Strophe a block of worms. Often fixed length, the stanza can be characterized by a particular arrangement of its rhymes. Traditionally, one groups the worms of the Sonnet into two quatrains and two tercets.
In the modern edition S, one separates the stanzas by a white line, which was not always the case. It is not rare that the stanza coincides with a syntactic unit, or has a semantic coherence.
The meterThe worms is thus defined especially by its meter, i.e. by a whole of formal constraints to which it is subjected. Three big families of meters are known: the quantitative meters, which rest on the quantity or lasted of the syllables, the accented meters, which are based on the syllabic tonic Accent and meters which, insensitive to their prosodic properties , are restricted to count the Syllabe S.
The long worms are almost invariably divided by a Césure, forced which is one of rare to be common to all the families of meters. This universality could be due to the incapacity of the human spirit well to apprehend overall long continuations of syllables.
The Rime is a frequent metric constraint, which one expects to find above all into metric syllabic, often also into metric accented. It is generally absent from the metric quantitative ones.
The concept of foot, presents into metric quantitative as into metric accented, does not have any direction into metric syllabic since the syllables are not treated on a hierarchical basis there.
Syllabic meterPrevailing in the poetry of the Romance languages, the worms with syllabic meter is determined by its number of Syllabe S. French poetry has recourse there in a dominating way, which does not prevent it from clearing on the occasion with the even accented quantitative meters (cf for example Hexamètre dactylic and sapphic Strophe).
MetersThe meter of the French worms is characterized by the number of its syllables (or its vowels), other than the supernumerary female syllables being able to occur at the end of the worms (female worms) or, in certain cases, with the caesura (“epic” caesura). Certain meters are more current than others (although, in contemporary poetry - and, for the sung worms, already at the traditional period - reign a great freedom). They are announced here by the boldfacing. In a general way, the even worms are more frequent than the odd worms:
- a syllable: Monosyllabic;
- two syllables: Dissyllable;
- three syllables: Trisyllabic;
- four syllables: Tetrasyllabic;
- five syllables: Pentasyllabic;
- six syllables: Hexasyllabe ;
- seven syllables: Heptasyllabe ;
- eight syllables: Octosyllabic ;
- nine syllables: Ennéasyllabe;
- ten syllables: Decasyllable ;
- eleven syllables: Hendécasyllabe;
- twelve syllables: Alexandrine , (the term dodecasyllable is not used. See under Alexandrine for more precise details).
- thirteen syllables: triskaidécasyllabe ;
- fourteen syllable: tetrakaidecasyllabe ;
In traditional French poetry, the worms are rhymes. Moreover, the decasyllables and the alexandrines comprise a Césure with the fourth position for the first (4 // 6) and with the sixth (6 // 6) for the seconds. One describes also decasyllables with caesura sixth (6 // 4) or fifth (5 // 5), but they are completely exceptional.
When a poem, or a stanza, are made up only of identical worms, they are qualified isometric . In the contrary case, they are known as heterometric.
How to say the French worms?To say the worms is a Art for which there does not exist any absolute rule, independently valid of the adopted esthetic position. The ones want “to break the worms” and are ingénient to make forget its metric regularities, as if they wanted that only prose is heard. Others defend a restricted play of rules of diction, which they would like to see justified by one does not know too which “laws of the French language”. Others still propose to sit poetic diction on a study of its history and to apply to him, all in all, the “historically informed” approach which largely the interpreters of the old Musique adopted. One is thus today very far from the dogmas conveyed by the treaties of Déclamation of the 19th century. Is a “neutral” diction of the French worms possible? Perhaps, but on the condition of giving up as a preliminary any esthetic claim and any preoccupation with a historical exactitude. What one can propose then, it is a “school” diction of the French syllabic worms, who restricts oneself to make perceptible the metric regularities of them, to the image of what it is agreed to call the Scansion for the graeco-latin worms. Without any artistic value, it can constitute a starting point in the training of the declamation, even if it means being modified and adapted according to the selected esthetic position.
Such a diction should at least conform to the following rules:
- To make intend in a way distinct all the numerary syllables from the worms, free to deviate from the everyday usage,
- by eliding all the '' E '' female final in front of initial vowel,
- by pronouncing all the E female not elided,
- by making connections which would be “prohibited” in prose, each time an initial vowel succeeds a final consonant,
- by respecting the practice of the poet in terms of Diérèse (for lion ) and of Synérèse (for wild boar ).
- To distinguish the female worms from the male worms while making hear their supernumerary female syllable slightly.
- To mark a rest with the caesura and at the end of the worms (even in the event of Crossing-over or of Rejection).
One can illustrate these “school” rules minimal by the transcription approximate Phonétique (in API) of the following worms (the syllables are separated by the point; their number follows the transcription) extracts of the Sonnet LIII “the Invitation to the voyage” of Charles Baudelaire ( Flowers of the Evil , “Spleen and Ideal”):
Quantitative meterIt is not possible that in the languages whose Prosodie includes/understands oppositions of quantity (vocalic or syllabic), like the Latin and the old Greek . The metric diagrams break up then into elementary feet, built on the alternation of heavy” or “long” syllabic positions “(-) with light” or “short” syllabic positions “(U). When one “stresses” worms, one draws up his metric diagram and one endeavors to recite it while making this diagram apparent.
The quantitative meter is not reserved for the Indo-European Langues old (Greek old, Latin, Sanskrit): it also meets in languages which, like the Arab , know oppositions of quantity (see Arab Poésie). The oppositions of quantity which remained in French of the Renaissance also gave place to a poetry authentically quantitative, in particular illustrated by Jean Antoine de Baïf. On the other hand, it is by abuse language that one qualifies iambic Pentamètre English worms concerning metric accented.
How it is the case in poetries graeco-latin and sanskrite, the metric quantitative ones do not hold in general any account of the tonic Accent.
Principal elementary feetTheir denominations are borrowed from the Greek , which provided us the essence of the vocabulary of analysis Poétique and Rhétorique. One represents the short position by the symbol U, the positionlongue by -. In metric Greek and the Latin E, one considers that long is equivalent to two short, which explains some of authorized substitutions (for example - UU → - -), but not some others (for example U - → - -).
- Pyrrhique or Dibraque: U U;
- Iambe : U -;
- Tuft of twigs: - U;
- Spondée : - -.
- Tribraque : U U U;
- Anapaest: U U -;
- Amphibraque : U - U;
- Bacchée : U - -;
- Dactyl: - UU;
- Amphimacre or Crétique - U -;
- Antibacchée : - - U;
- Molosse: - - -.
- Tétrabraque (or Procéleusmatique): U U U U;
- Péon (three short and long):
- péon first: - U U U,
- péon second: U - U U,
- péon third: U U - U,
- péon fourth: U U U -,
- épitrite (three long and short):
- épitrite first: U - - -,
- épitrite second: - U - -,
- épitrite third: - - U -,
- épitrite fourth: - - - U,
- Ionic major: - - U U;
- Ionic minor: U U - -;
- Dispondée : - - - -;
- Diiambe : U - U -;
- Antipaste : U - - U;
- Choriambe : - UU -;
- Ditrochée : - U - U.
A few quantitative metersThe worms break up into measurements (or “meters”), of which each one can comprise one or more elementary feet. Thus, a trimeter iambic is cash composed it of three iambic measurements each one two feet, a hexameter dactylic of six measurements cash each one a foot dactylic. Because of often possible substitutions (- → UU), the number of syllable of worms given, like the dactylic Hexameter, is variable (see also under Scansion). Moreover, as in the syllabic meter, there exist Césure S, localized compared to the feet. As its name indicates it, a caesura penthémimère intervenes after the fifth half-foot (either two feet and half). Parallel to the Greek terms, there exists a Latin terminology. A senary iambic , or iambic senary , is worms including/understanding six feet iambic, and which roughly speaking , is equivalent to trimeter iambic the Greek.
Greek and Latin poetries, although very close relations in their use of the quantitative meters, diverge by certain aspects. One will re-examine for each meter in his page for a detailed description:
- Towards saturnien (towards Latin national);
- Meters dactylic, of which:
- Hexameter dactylic,
- Pentametric dactylic,
- Meters iambic, of which:
- Trimeter iambic,
- trochaïque Meter;
- Meter logaedic;
- Meter anapestic;
- Meter peonic;
- Meters anacreontic;
- Meters wind.
This list is far from being exhaustive.
Regroupings of worms to quantitative metersThe worms can be gathered in systems . In this case, the distribution of the long and short syllables is done on the extent of the stanza and not of the worms only. For example, in elegiac poetry or lyric, it is current to use the elegiac Distique, stanza made up of a Hexamètre dactylic followed by a Pentamètre.
- saphic Stanza;
- Alcaic Stanza;
- elegiac Distich.
Greek exampleHere stressed worms 75 of the first song of Iliade, work written in hexameters dactylic, as requires it the kind epic. The Césure is penthémimère. It is noted that the accent does not affect any the worms and that the syllables of a given foot inevitably do not form part of the same word (the feet are separated by the right bar, the caesura is indicated by two oblique bars and the colors make it possible to connect the syllables of the same foot):
- Μῆνιν Ἀπόλλωνος ἑκατηϐελέταο ἄνακτος
Latin exampleThe worms Latin national is the Towards saturnien, which one knows little about operation still. In addition to by the presence of it worms specific, metric Latin offers only very little originality compared to metric Greek. It indeed borrowed this system to him, just as it borrowed many literary and artistic kinds from Greece. The principal differences are in the rules of Scansion.
- Yields repugnanti; cedendo uictor abibis;
- FAC modo, quas left illa iubebit agas.
Accented meterIn certain languages knowing however the oppositions of vocalic quantity, the feet and the meters are defined by the distribution of the tonic Accent and not the quantity. It is the case in English: the stressed syllable plays the part long, the others that of short. The essence of metric English, however, follows that of metric traditional (graeco-latin). For example, the Pentametric iambic, one of the meters most used in English, is presented thus (the tonic accent is announced by the fat, the feet are separated by the right bar):
- Was this | the face | that launch' D | thou has |sand ships
- And burnt | the signal |less to |wers off | It ium?
- Christopher Marlowe, Dr. Faust (the last one towards finishes on a Trochée)
- And burnt | the signal |less to |wers off | It ium?
Samuel Taylor Coleridge is famous for its dactylic English imitations of graeco-latin hexameters in its poem Hexameters .
Metric RussianRussian poetry knows:
- two meters binary: the ïambe and the chorée (or Tuft of twigs)
- three meters ternary: the Dactyl, the Amphibraque and the Anapaest.
Example of ïambe (ямб):
- Exemple of is chorée (хорей):
- Exemple of dactyl (дактиль):
- amphibraque Exemple of (амфибракий):
- Exemple of anapaest (анапест):
There exists in Russian three kinds of rhymes:
- male (accentuated finale)
- female (accentuated penult)
- dactylic (accentuated antepenultimate).
Sources and references
|Random links:||Natty dread (magazine) | Cathedral Holy-Sophie de Novgorod | Route history of the houses of writers | Costume | Liste_de_phénomènes_météorologiques|