See also: Toulon (homonymy)
Toulon (in Occitan Of Provence: Tolon in traditional standard or Touloun in Norme mistralienne) is a common French, located in the department of the Var and the area Provence-Alp-Coast of Azure. The city has the largest French military port, the Arsenal.
Toulon is the ninth French Agglomération by its population and the fifteenth city intramural. Its urban surface is it tenth of France. Its inhabitants is called the Residents of Toulon (be).
The currency of the city east Concordia parva crescunt (“By the harmony the small things become large”).
HistoryOccupied well before the Colonization Roman E by the Ligure S, Telo Martius (of Telo , the goddess of the sources - or Latin tol , low of hill - and Martius , in the honor of the god of the war, Mars ( Ares among Greeks)), became one of two imperial dyeings of crimson, natural dye of red color, thanks to the exploitation of the murex and the cochineal S of kermes oak then frequent on its territory.
Not slackening of the merchant ships Telo , then Tholon , Tolon, etc, attempts to protect this exceptional site frequently plundered by pirates and Sarrasins. After the fastening of the Provence in France, Toulon becomes a place of naval construction (under Charles VIII) and its roads are used to shelter military fleets. Toulon is the starting place and of arrival of the majority of great military forwardings towards Africa during the Ancien Mode and of the 19th century.
- 1524 : completion of the “Gross Tower” or royal Tower, the city falls to the hands from imperial carried out by the Connétable from Bourbon;
- 1543 : to keep at his disposal the Othoman fleet of Barberousse, the king François 1st authorizes it to winter with Toulon, emptied his inhabitants. New scandal for Christian Europe.
- 1707 : Toulon resists during the invasion of Provence by the imperial ones carried out by the Duc of Savoy and the Prince Eugene at the time of the War of succession of Spain;
- 1720 : devastations of the plague, 13000 people die, that is to say approximately half of the population (the city is contaminated by the Peste of Marseilles);
- 1790 : Toulon is the chief town of the department of the Var;
- 1793 : delivered to the British , the city is regarded as traitress with the Révolution. Napoleon Bonaparte was distinguished at the time of this seat.
See also: Head office of Toulon
In reprisals, Toulon will lose its statute of chief town of the department and will be renamed Port-the-Mountain ;
- September 25th 1911: explosion of the battleship Freedom in roads of Toulon, which on the whole caused approximately 300 dead;
- November 27th 1942: Scuttling of the French fleet in the wearing of Toulon, in order not to fall between the hands from the German forces invading the free zone;
- November 24th 1943: an important bombardment of Allied makes 500 dead;
- August 28th 1944: Toulon is released by the army De Lattre at the price of hard combat;
- 1974 : Toulon becomes again prefecture of the Var;
- October 1st 1979: Toulon has its university;
- 1995 : Toulon is one of the four cities gained by the National front with the municipal elections.
- 2001 : the former mayor of Pignans, Hubert Falco gains the elections vis-a-vis the outgoing mayor Jean-Marie Le Chevallier.
HeraldicThe weapons of Toulon are blasonnent as follows:
GeographyThe town of Toulon is located on the Littoral the Mediterranean N, halfway between Marseilles, with the west, and Saint-Tropez, in the east. Sometimes one regards it as the first city in the west of the Riviera.
The Faron mountThe Mount Faron, in the north of the city, dominates Toulon, its roads and the cities surrounding. Summit, to 584 meters of altitude, offers an extraordinary panorama. One reaches it by a road in one way (gone up by the west coast, descent by the east) or by a Téléphérique.
RoadsThe Rade of Toulon is famous most beautiful of Europe and the second in the world after that of Rio de Janeiro. It is the peninsula of Giens and the peninsula of Saint-Mandrier-on-Sea which close the roads with the full sea. In the roads, one thus finds the wearing of Saint-Mandrier-on-Sea, the port of the Seyne-sur-Mer, the arsenal (the military port) and the wearing of Toulon.
The military part
See also: Military port of Toulon
The arsenal of Toulon is the first military port of France. It was in particular the Home port of the Porte-avions Charles-of-Gaulle . He shelters other warships, and part of the nuclear Sous-marin S. He extends from the limits of the city of the Seyne-sur-Mer until the limit of the civil port of Toulon. It is an important center of repair and maintenance of the ships. The eleven basins of Radoub were built for that. Two larger (422 meters by 40) were built while gaining on the sea, work lasted of 1911 with 1927. It is in these basins that the IPER (Unavailability for maintenance and repair, i.e. one duration programmed interventions higher than one year) are held, to maintain the French aircraft carriers (initially the Clémenceau and the Foch , maintaining the Charles-of-Gaulle ).
South-west• Beaucaire, an at the same time rural and town district (a city of important size includes/understands) in extreme cases of the commune of Ollioules.
• the districts of the Pont-Neuf, Bridge-of-wood, of River-New and of Good-Meets, residential districts and commercial.
• the Bridge of the Mow, a true city in the city which has many infrastructures (each ground floor of building shelters at least a trade), many places, of which the place Martin Bidouré, second market of Toulon after that of the Lafayette course. This place also holds place of square for the parish Saint-Joseph, church of the XVe-18th centuries, equipped with large organ, as well as many vaults decorated with statues, and whose southern frontage is partly covered with gildings putting in scene the Christ-King, by making a very animated district.
The North-West• Rather residential districts, like the district of the Roads, like several cities (Jonquet, Guynemer) while going up towards the baou of the Four Oures (“the rock of the Four-Winds”, into of Provence).
North• On the northern slope (Ubac) of the Faron mount remain of the hamlets: those of the Mills, Pomets and Ubac.
• Side splits, one can consider a multitude of districts: Barbs, Claret, Siblas (accommodating the military hospital of Holy-Anne), the Strings (name due to the imposing remainders of still intact ramparts of the time Vauban and Napoleon; this district is the seat of the prefecture of the VAr and the general advice).
Is• Saint-Jean-of-VAr, a symmetrical district of the Bridge of the Mow, east coast, which rather has the pace of a city-street.
• Brunet, located in the prolongation of Saint-Jean-of-VAr, which accommodates the civil hospital of Make-Pre.
• Holy-drove, an industrial and residential district
• districts of the Brown Cape, Serinette and Ameniers.
Center southern• The old city, historical center of Toulon, sheltered a long time the underworld local, the doubtful bars, and attracted themselves a ashamed reputation lasting of the years. The efforts of D-urbanization of the successive mayors lead from now on to a visible but partial rehabilitation. One finds there celebrates it walked of Provence of the Lafayette course and his local specialities like the cade (socca) and the Chichi Frégi. This market inspired a song of Gilbert Bécaud ( markets of Provence ).
• The high-city, it is the " part; Haussmannienne" center. The Baron Haussmann which completely modernized the town of Paris at the XIXe century (the famous frontages haussmaniennes which surveys all the capital) was prefect of the Var, and it is at the time of the enlarging of Toulon ordered by Napoleon III that it carried out his first " prototypes of Architecture " in the high-city which was not whereas fields. It also built there the place of Freedom, the Large Hotel, the garden Alexandre-Ier, the Chalucet hospital, the law courts, the station as well as the old building of the Ladies of France and the old savings bank. He asked of the assistance to his friend Garnier to build an opera. It was also the first opera of France built by Garnier, it made use of it, like Haussmann, of “tests” for the future opera which it was going to build in Paris, the Opéra Garnier. Toulon, and more particularly the high-city, was the experimental plot of the most beautiful architecture of the world, which was retransmise thus with Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Montpellier, etc more the big cities of France.
EconomyToulon is the seat of the Chamber of commerce and industry of the VAr. This one manages the Aéroport of Toulon - Hyères, the commercial port of Toulon, the marina of Toulon and ports of Giens - Porquerolles.
- Ports commercial and pleasure
- Military port (Arsenal of the national marine)
- administrative Center
- major tourist Pole
Toulon is divided into new cantons:
ClimateThe Toulon-native climate is of Mediterranean type, characterized by a very strong sunning, one season dries definitely marked in be, of rare but sometimes violent precipitations, the hot in summer and soft temperatures in Hiver. From its proximity with the sea, the temperatures remain relatively lenient in all seasons.
Thus the average temperature of January (the coldest month) is 9,3°C (hottest of Metropolitan France) with average maximum temperatures of 12,7°C and average minimal temperatures of 5,8°C. The average temperature of July (the hottest month) is of 23,9°C with average maximum temperatures of 29,1°C and average minimal temperatures of 18,8°C.
Toulon is the sunniest city of France with 2899 H on average per annum.
Precipitations are of 665 mm per annum. The driest month is July with 6,6 mm, most rainy October with 93,9 Misters It is rains less than 60 days per annum (59,7 on average) and the distributions of precipitations are very unequal. Thus February is the month when it generally rains with 7,1 days of precipitations but for only 88,3 mm whereas October has only 5,9 days of rain. The month when it rains the least most often is July with 1,3 days. The driest months and where it rains the least most often go from May to September. The Automne is characterized by violent but short rains, the winter by precipitations important but more distributed.
From its proximity with the sea, freezing is rare (2,9 days per annum on average) and permanent freezing (i.e. where the maximum temperature remains lower or equal to zero) completely non-existent. Snow is rare also (hardly 1,5 days per annum on average) and it is exceptional that it is due on the ground (0,3 days per annum on average).
However, the softness of the Toulon-native climate should not make forget an unpleasant characteristic of the climate: wind. There is more than 115 days of strong wind (mistral, very dryness; east wind, in general accompanied by precipitations or cloudy time). The windiest month is January with on average 12,5 days of strong wind. The least windy is September with 7 days of strong wind. In winter, the mistral can considerably accentuate the feeling of cold even when the temperatures remain lenient.
The Toulon-native atmosphere is often dry. Thus the relative humidity is there on average of 56% with few seasonal variations: The driest months are July and August with 50%, the least dry is November and December with 60%.
- Bonaparte College: accommodate the pupils in Preparatory class at the universities (die economic and commercial)
- Lycée Dumont-In Urville: accommodate the pupils in preparatory class at the universities (scientific die - a MPSI and two PCSI in higher Mathématiques and a MP, a PSI*, a PC and a PC* in special Mathématiques -, literary and economic and commercial).
- Hotel college: local BTS tourist Animation and management (Site of the College of Hotel trade and Tourism Saint Louis of Toulon and of the VAr).
- general-purpose College Rouvière: accommodate the pupils in preparatory class at the universities (scientific sector: PTSI in higher mathematics and Pt in special mathematics like TSI)
- Vocational school of the park Midsummer's Day
- Vocational school Georges-Cisson
- Institute of higher learning of electronics and numerical (ISEN Toulon)
- Institute of the VAr and engineerings de Toulon (ISITV)
- Supméca Toulon
- University of Toulon
TunnelThe tunnel of Toulon east one of the building sites of this type which takes the most time to currently build. The first blows of pickaxe were given in 1991 for the construction of this tunnel which must unchoke Toulon, which is one of the most bottled cities France. Work for the first tube in the direction Nice - Marseilles lasted eleven years and in September 2002, the northern tube opens finally with circulation. Work for the southern tube (Marseilles-Nice direction) is in hand and this tube should not open before 2010. It will have been necessary in any step far from twenty years to build a long tunnel in very of three kilometers.
- Airport of Toulon
- Wearing of Toulon
- the Cable car of the Mount Faron
Trains broad outlines and station
- Station of Toulon
- Tram of Toulon
Famous characters born in Toulon
Among the players of Rugby to XV born in Toulon, let us quote:
- Cathedral Our-Lady-in-the-Seds Toulon (1096).
- Opera of Toulon, the grand opera of province.
- royal Tower, an old fortress of defense of the roads then prison until the Second world war.
- Turn of the clock or “square tower”, in the enclosure of the arsenal, in the past on pile.
- Statue in the honor of Raoh, emperor of Hokuto.
- Statue of the Genius of Navigation, square of the Port (bronze statue, called in the popular speech “Bottom-towards-City”, owing to the fact that it turns the back on the Residents of Toulon).
- Monument of the Federation, a fountain of the Place of Freedom, putting in scene in a way very idealized the departure of the Statue of freedom of Toulon towards New York on the Isere frigate.
- Monument of the Empire of the trade, a fountain located place of the Sites which puts in scene the famous legend Viking concerning the exchange of the blue Screen in Toulon.
- the Bathyscaphe F.N.R.S. 3, Esplanade of the Royal Tower
- the statue of the strawberry of the East, representing a pineapple
- National museum of the Navy of Toulon (one of the three of France).
- Museum of Article
- Museum of Asian Arts.
- Natural history museum of Natural history.
- Museum of the Toulon Old man.
- Museum Jean Aicard-Paul Bertrand.
- Hotel of Arts.
- Memorial of the unloading in Provence with the Mount Faron.
- Telamones of Pierre Puget
- Boat sculpture (the true head of prow is with the museum of the navy).
- Church Saint-François-of-Paule (17th century).
- Saint-Louis Church (neo-classic).
- Strong Saint-Louis.
- Mount Faron.
- Place of the Freedom and its “Fountain of the Federation” (1889).
- Puget Place and its “Fountain with the Dolphins” (1780).
- Place Raimu and the frontage of the opera.
- Beaches of Mourillon.
- Door of Italy.
- monumental Door of the Arsenal.
- monumental Door of the old seminar of the Jesuits (frontage is Rope manufacture).
- Statue of the Genius of Navigation (also called “Cuverville”).
- New Rivière delimiting the districts of Good-Meets and the bridge Neuf (channel of diversion of the Mow undertaken by Vauban).
Parks, gardens and public gardens
Mediterranean Kitchen and of Provence
- the cade resident of Toulon (Socca), speciality containing chick-pea flour
- the Fuss Frégi , fritter of Provence
- culinary Speciality of the Pont-Neuf: Aozu (famous Toulon-native cocktail in New York and Tokyo), made starting from the Mortem plant, of juice of ichiwazu and alcohol drive bee
Rugby Toulon-native club, club of Rugby of the Pro D2, champion of France with three recoveries (1931, 1987 and 1992);
- Sporting Toulon VAr, club of National Football of which goes down in CFA for season 2007/2008;
- Hyères Toulon VAr Tennis shoe, club of Basket-ball of Pro has;
- the Buccaneers, club of Hockey;
- the Gunners, club of American football;
- Toulon Agreement/Saint-Cyr-on-Sea, club of female Handball;
- Site of presentation of the “rise of Faron”, pedestrian race of Easter Sunday.
Festivals and demonstrations
Festival Jazz in Toulon
- International festival of maritime film, exploration and environment (Official site).
- Festival of the book
- Fair with the Seedlings
- Living room ideas weekend (tourism) (Official site).
- Living room of the manga (Mangazur) (Official site).
- Viatelo: Wiki carto of agglomeration TPM. The culture, it is you!
Festival of the sweet chestnut
- Festival of the sea urchin
- Festival Bacchus (festival of the wine and the gastronomy)
- Championnat of France of Rugby Pro D2
- Championnat of France of football National
- Championnat of France of tennis shoe Pro has
- female Championnat of France of handball of division 2
- Championnat of France of hockey D3
- Tournoi of Toulon
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