See also: Togo (homonymy)
The Togo is a Pays of West Africa having borders common with the Bénin to the east, the Burkina Faso in north, and the Ghana in the west. Its southern frontage is open on the gulf of the Benign one. The population is estimated in 2006 at approximately 5,4 million inhabitants for a density of 95 hab/km ².
Togo east one of the smallest African States with 56.785 km ², stretching itself on 550 km of north in the south with a width not exceeding 130 km. This low surface does not prevent Togo from being recognized for the great diversity of its landscapes (a coast of fine sand bordered of coconuts in the south, hills, valleys green and small mountains in the center of the country, the arid plains and large planted savannas of baobab trees in north).
See also: Contenu=Voir the detailed article [[History of Togo]]
Colonial timeTogo undergoes the trade slave trader century. In 1884, the king Mlapa III of Togoville, signs a treaty of protectorate with the Germany (represented by Gustav Nachtigal), which perdure until in 1918, at the end of the First World War.
The colony is then divided between the the United Kingdom and the France, sometimes at the price of the division of certain ethnos groups. The part under French control passes under supervision of UNO in 1946.
IndependenceTogo acquires her independence, on April 27th 1960, by an agreement with the French administration, under the control of UNO. Internal autonomy goes back to 1956.
In 1958 the CUT in favor of independence gains the elections organized and supervised by UNO and Mr. Sylvanus Olympio becomes Prime Minister. Under the instigation of the French commander Maitrier, chief of the national police and adviser of the president whose contract of co-operation arrived in the long term, 626 Togolese veterans of the French Army, including one great part had fought in Algérie and in Indo-China ask to be integrated in the Togolese security forces which count 300 members. Sylvanus Olympio refuses. They relieve it in a coup d'etat, on January 13rd 1963, in which Olympio finds death.
It is thus a civil president, Nicolas Grunitzky (1963-1967) which is carried to the capacity, but four years later, following an other coup d'etat, he flees the country. Four years later he dies in an car accident in Ivory Coast.
The reign of Gnassingbé EyademaOne of the organizers of the coup d'etat of 1963, Gnassingbé Eyadema is promoted president in 1967. It removes the political parties and creates the Gathering of the Togolese people (RPT).
In 1990, following violent demonstrations, followed by a national conference, a Prime Minister resulting from the opposition Maître Joseph Kokou Koffigoh is elected Prime Minister. The adoption of a new constitution in 1992 does not alleviate however the tensions. In 1993, Eyadema again gains the presidential election boycotted by the opposition.
Gnassingbé Eyadéma is close to the defeat, at the time of the elections of 1998, vis-a-vis Gilchrist Olympio, wire of Sylvanus Olympio. It gains the election under very contreversées conditions.
Gnassingbé Eyadéma is re-elected in 2003 following a change in the constitution to authorize it to present itself again.
Gnassingbé Eyadéma dies the February 5th 2005, putting fine at 38 years presidency consecutive. The army seizes the power, by enfreignant the Constitution which stipulates that it is the president of the National Assembly (abroad at the time of the death of Gnassingbé Eyadema) which must chair the interim and entrusts it to one wire of Gnassingbé Eyadema, Faure Gnassingbé.
Under the pressure of the opposition, African Union (UA) and international community, this coup d'etat “fails” on February 25th, 2005 with the resignation of Faure Gnassingbé. Constitutional legality is restored.
The 24 April 2005, a presidential election is organized. It is held under very discussed conditions, the opposition, denouncing frauds, in particular flights of ballot boxes by soldiers. Emmanuel Bob Akitani, chief of the opposition, is declared victorious with 70% of the voices whereas the government declares Faure Gnassingbé elected. Dice the advertisement of the results, of the demonstrations burst in the main cities. They will violently be repressed by the army, making 500 died according to the estimates of the commission of national survey, more than 800 according to the Togolese League of human rights (LTDH). Many Togoleses, approximately 40.000, take refuge in the adjoining country, the Bénin and the Ghana. May 3rd, 2005, Faure Gnassingbé lends oath and declares that it will concentrate on “the promotion of the development, the community property, peace and the national unit”.
Since, the young president managed to restore confidence with the European Union (UE) after 13 years of embargo. He moreover gave his agreement to the formation of a government of national unit. The Prime Minister is adverse of long time, Me Yawovi Agboyibo, president of BECAUSE.
Legislative elections should proceed with the autumn 2007 (several carryforwards took place).
See also: Contenu=Voir the detailed article [[Political of Togo]]
Nicolas Grunitzky becomes president of Togo following the coup d'etat, the first of all the history of the Black Africa after Independences, organized by a group of soldiers directed by the sergeant Etienne Gnassingbé Eyadema. Nicolas Gruniztky is relieved by coup d'etat in 1967 organized by the same Etienne Gnassingbé Eyadema.
From 1967 with the February 5th 2005, Etienne Gnassingbé Eyadema, very criticized for its methods of repression towards its political opponents, is president of Togo. Following the absence with the country of the president of the National Assembly, which according to article 65 of the Constitution must take over temporarily the duties of the presidency, the Togolese army makes the decision to entrust the capacity to the son of Gnassingbé Eyadema, Faure Gnassingbé Eyadema. The African Union by the voice of the president of the Commission Alpha Oumar Konaré denounces a military coup d'etat.
The February 25th 2005, following the pressures of the CEDEAO and the European Union, the son of Gnassingbé withdraws and leaves the place to the vice-president of the Togolese National Assembly Abbas Bonfoh. This last takes over temporarily the duties of the presidential function until the behavior of the presidential election of April 24th, 2005. Four candidates present themselves: Faure Gnassingbé Eyadema, supported by the Gathering of the Togolese people (RPT), Emmanuel Bob Akitani, candidate of the coalition of the radical opposition, Harry Olympio, candidate of the Gathering for the support for the democracy and the development (RSDD, moderate opposition) and Nicolas Lawson, businessman which announces the withdrawal of its candidature on April 22nd, 2005.
The April 26th 2005, the National electoral commission and independent (CENI) proclaims the results of the presidential election of April 24th. Faure Gnassingbé, gains the election with 60,22% of the votes in front of Emmanuel Bob Akitani with 38,19% and Harry Olympio with 0,55%. The opposition and the RPT mutually show handling and frauds. The France, very implied in the events of Togo, judges that the poll proceeded under acceptable conditions even if it 500 died more than there, 10.000 wounded and 30.000 refugees. The European commission, in spite of a confidential relationship accrediting the existence of massive frauds on behalf of the capacity, took note of the election of Faure Gnassingbe. The the European Parliament voted for a resolution of not-recognition of Faure Gnassigbé as elected president of Togo.
Amnesty International publishes in July 2005, a report/ratio denouncing according to its own terms “a poll irregular and serious violences” while showing that “Togolese security forces helped by militia close to the party in power (the Gathering of the Togolese people (RPT)) were violently caught some with supposed opponents or ordinary citizens by having recourse to a systematic use of violence. ” The report/ratio also reproaches France its ambiguous role in the current location.
Violences continuations with the political events of 2005 would have involved between 400 and 500 dead. Some speak even of more than 800 victims.
Article détaillé : Subdivisions of Togo
Togo is divided into five administrative areas, themselves cut out in 30 prefectures.
the maritime area, chief town: Lome
- the area of the plates, chief town: Atakpamé
- the central area, chief town: Sokodé
- the area of Kara, chief town: Kara
- the area of Savannas, chief town: Dapaong
See also: Contenu=Voir the detailed article [[Geography of Togo]], [[cities of Togo]]
Togo is a African country of 56 785 km ² of which the length is 600 km and the width vary from 50 with 150 km. The country has 1700 km of border with the Burkina Faso, the Ghana and the Benign and 50 km of coasts giving on the Gulf of Guinea. It should be noted that erosion is very important there; for example, in six years water has advanced 140 Mr. maximum altitude is the Mont Agou which culminates with 986 Mr.
. The Ewe, the Kabiyé and the Mina are the national languages most used by the population.
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