The concept of to be in general indicates what we feel to exist in one way or another in the Perception, which it is sensitive or understandable. The study to be it is called ontology or Métaphysique.
- an analysis of the word ( einai , ess , center , to Be , essere , etc) makes it possible to distinguish two fundamental directions: to be such or such, or to be in an absolute way.
- the Concept can be also analyzed starting from the linguistic categories under which it is presented.
These last distinctions, in addition to being linguistic analyzes, also determine for a good portion the essential directions of the metaphysical analysis. They are categories with the means of which the Réel is apprehended, conceived and theorized, according to various philosophical and scientific interpretations; they make it possible moreover to clarify a concept which remains rather confused.
Intuitive character to be it
In the roughest form and most consensual, one must admit that there is to be it . But this Intuition without true contents gives place to very different interpretations. The immediate and vague character of this intuition is thus very close to nothing, and he was very variously appreciated, either like intuition of infinite, or like absolute starting point of the thought, or pure illusion; the indetermination to be it is sometimes developed in itself, as in Arab philosophy (cf Avicenne, philosopher of origin Perse).
One can thus distinguish the following intuitions:
permanent: the Being as Being of transcendent Parménide,
- : the Idea of Plato and the substance of Aristote;
- mystical Intuition, as at Plotin;
- transcendence: Substance at Thomas d' Aquin;
- reflexive: it is the cogito of Descartes
- Apodictique and immanente: the substance of Spinoza;
- Intuition to be it like infinite (cf Malebranche) the
- experiment (fundamental intuition) pure or participative : it is the Be-Act or total presence of empirical Lavelle
- or Idéaliste: it is the percipi of Berkeley, the Phénomène of Husserl or the being of Heidegger and l'
En-Soiof Sartre (both undifferentiated)
Semantics to be it
The word to be French is polysemous and has varied employment, which it is advisable to analyze to avoid confusions. It is necessary in addition to take account of the uses of the term (S) equivalent (S) with “being” in other languages not to pass beside certain aspects.
“To be” like predicative verb: (logical or metaphysical distinction on the affections to be it for example)
- to be a being, it is exister (as a subject is posed in its act to be) or it is to have the being. One can consider the existence according to various points of view:
- substantial direction: “I thus think I am” where it “thus” expresses an immediacy and not a reasoning (Descartes)
- phenomenal direction: a thing is when it is currently presented in the experiment (Berkeley, Kant)
- objective direction: a thing is when it is marked like valid for the experiment of all the individuals
- being within the meaning of l'identité: " has is b" mean that has and B are the same thing, that they are two names different from the same thing (they have the same referent). Examples: Paris is the capital of France ; (at the end of a detective novel): the assassin, it is the notary .
- to be within the meaning of the subsomption or of the instanciation (“to be a kind of”):
- to say that the tigers are animals, it is to affirm that the class of the tigers is a subclass of that of the animals: there is thus Subsomption of a class under another.
- to say that Shere Khan is a tiger, it is to state which the entity (or the individual) Shere Khan constitutes an authority of the class of the tigers.
- to be within the meaning of having a propriété (or quality): the verb being then expresses an intrinsic relation between the subject and the predicate. A property is more or less permanent (even définitionnelle): to be of male sex is a property more fundamental than to be French , itself more permanent than to be factor , to be rich or to be sick . This distinction is reflected in various languages, as in Spanish (ser # estar) . Among the nonpermanent states, one can still distinguish between:
- the reversible contingent states (to miss sick, in anger,) or cyclic (fire is with the red)
- the irreversible transitory states (it is still young; these cherries are not ripe)
- the irreversible final states (to be penguin, to be dead)
- to be expressing various relations statiques, circumstantial or not, for example:
- logical, mathematical, geometrical relations… (two lines perpendicular to a third are parallel between them)
- space location (Tibet is in Asia; Jean is abroad; the WC are at the bottom on the right)
- temporal location (it is late; the appointment is at fifteen hours)
- social relation (Louise is the sister-in-law of Albert; Mr. Martin is my hierarchically superior)
- relation of possession (this wallet is with me) or of part to the whole (it is my foot)
- comparison (he is taller than you; Mont Blanc is more the high summit of the Alps)
- subjective appreciation (this table is splendid) …
- to be with the situational direction d'être présent (ex: Russian est' sup , literally “it is soup”, translates into French by “there are”, English “there is/are”, German “are gibt”).
- the fact of being or act to be , the Existence
- what is really ( ens reale ), the Substance or gasoline
- an existing being in the thought, to be of reason : object of thought artificially created by the Spirit, without existence in oneself
- an authority of alive (generally human).
In each category, the philosophers gave directions varied to the word being. It is noticed that the being in general indicates either a given reality (to be such, to be a being ), or a more fundamental Réalité, a more real being. In this last case, one can arrive is with the idea of a Being which contains in him all the beings and all the determinations (the Nature or a God immanent), that is to say with the idea of a being which is not any being, but is the degree of supreme perfection to be it ( ens highest , an absolutely transcendent god).
“To be” like grammatical tool
In French, the verb to be is also used, as a auxiliary:
- to form the times made up of certain verbs, traditionally called verbs “of state” and movement (it est become philosophical; j'étais assembled on the floor: us serions intervened if we had been able it)
- to form the passive other verbs (the cliff est corroded by the sea; it has été struck by hooligans)
Some ontological divisions
If, now, we consider the being as it presents ourselves to us (by taking again the distinctions of direction relative to other concepts), we find several manners of dividing the being; these divisions are manners for our spirit of designing the being and thus of knowing it:
- to be thought and be sensitive;
- thought, reality, existence are various faces Être which divides thus according to the participation (Lavelle);
- to be in act and to be in power;
- to be real, be of fiction, to be of reason: insofar as the beings of fiction and reason are only modes of the Pensée, they are not at all beings.
- to be necessary, possible, contingent: the being necessary is that whose gasoline envelope the existence, there necessarily exists by its only nature. The possible being is that whose gasoline wraps only one possible existence.
And several manners of determining its affections:
- empirical categories;
- transcendantales categories.
Certain philosophers, such as Nietzsche and Heidegger, affirmed that the fundamental ontological division of the Occident east that which places on a side an immutable Being and out of time, and on another side a changing being, a less being, subjected to the Temps and corruption. Thus, in the Western Métaphysique, it is the idea that the men had time which would be at the origin of the division of the areas to be it and of their hierarchisation.
Determination to be it compared to other concepts
The being is the meeting place (virtual) many dualisms which are expressed starting from preceding classification:
- does one Distinguish the case from the prone ( Dasein (to be there), Pour-Soi ) of that of the object?
- does the distinction proceed of a heart (inanimate objects animated and ) which lives a body ?
- Or is the subject a accident of the Matière (Autopoïèse?)
- Which relation between the being and the gasoline (the being to be it)?
- is the being a reflection (a shade ) of a paramount gasoline, or on the contrary, the existence it precedes the gasoline ?
- Which relation between the being and the existence?
|Random links:||Fontenay-Aux-Roses | IluminaciÃ³n global | Gerpinnes | Homonota | Dimitrovgrad (Serbia) | Monument of the peace of the children | David_Stirling|