RMS Titanic ( Royal Mail Steamer Titanic ) was a Transatlantic liner Britannique of the White Star Line, built in 1911 and having as home port Liverpool. It was most luxurious and largest Paquebot ever built at the time of its launching. At the time of its inaugural voyage of Southampton to New York, it struck a Iceberg on the side Tribord the April 14th 1912 with 23:40 and ran the April 15th 1912 with 2:20 with broad of Newfoundland. Between 1.491 and 1.513. Their names, Olympic , Titanic and Gigantic (renamed Britannic after the Shipwreck of its twin). The plans of the Titanic and the Olympic (the construction of the Gigantic was decided later) were drawn in the offices of the shipyards Harland and Wolf on Queen' S Island in Belfast, in Northern Ireland. With the head of the operations were Alexander Montgomery Carlisle, managing director of the shipyards and person in charge of installations, the decoration and the devices of rescue of the steamers and Thomas Andrews, chief of the Department Drawing and naval Architecte. With the retirement of Alexander Montgomery Carlisle, in 1910, Thomas Andrews took his place and became thus Managing director of the building sites and the design. The July 31st 1908, Joseph Bruce Ismay approved the project during a displacement in Belfast and signed a letter of agreement with the shipyards. In this contract was mentioned that the best produced was to be used as well as the greatest professional control.
ConstructionWith the Fall 1908, the plans were completed and the special provisioning as well as the nonrealizable equipment by the shipyards Harland and Wolf was ordered. Lord Pirrie made increase the shipyards in particular with the construction of an immense gantry which was largest scaffolding world with the time (256 m of length, 82 m broad and 52,60 m in height as well as cranes of 69,50 m). The December 16th 1908, the skittle of the Olympic was posed on the hold of construction n°2. It carried the number of building site 400, the 400e order received by Harland and Wolf. The March 22nd 1909. The Titanic , after having made a success of its launching, was stopped by 6 less anchors S retained themselves by 23 Aussière S in Acier of 80 tons each one and towed to quay by step than 5 tug boats.
- This equipment was with the point of technology in 1912, indeed the Navire had smoke detectors in the places at the risks what made it possible to the team members to quickly intervene on a Incendie. The Vapeur which propelled the Navire was provided by 29 Chaudière S and 159 hearths. A phone line was also installed on the Paquebot, it made it possible to communicate between the crow's nest, the steering gear, the back beach, the engine room and the back compartment, another line made it possible to the passengers of 1 class to communicate with various services (bar S, Restaurant…). Electrical energy necessary was provided by 4 dynamos of 400 kw.
- the Titanic had four Cheminée S but only three of them really functioned, the fourth having for goal esthetics of the Navire and the ventilation of the engine rooms. In truth, it would seem that it was rather launched by the press; despite everything, neither the building sites Harland and Wolf, nor the White Star Line contradicted it.
BridgesThe 10 bridges of the Titanic make it possible to raise it with the row of larger Paquebot ever built with its time, here the detail and the composition of the bridges:
Pont des boatsIt was high of 17,68 meters, it included/understood the footbridge of command, the districts of the officers, the cabin of radio, the gymnasium, the lifeboats and the walks of 1st and 2nd class.
Pont hasThe bridge, called also promenade deck Superior, was high of 14,78 meters above the sea level, it included/understood the large living room of 1 class, the Living room of reading and writing of the 1 class as well as the smoking-room, the coffee-veranda, an exotic garden and the apartments of luxury of 1 various class of style.
Pont BThe bridge B or Promenade deck, was high of 12,04 meters, it included/understood the restaurant with the chart of 1 class, a Parisian coffee, the smoking-room of 2nd class and residences for the 1 class.
Pont CThe bridge C, also called Higher bridge, was high of 9,30 meters compared to the sea level, it included/understood the particular continuations of luxury of 1 class, the library of 2nd class, the smoking-room of 3rd class, the common room of 3rd class and the walks of 2nd and 3rd class.
Pont DThe Bridge D, also called Bridge Living room, was high with 6,10 meters, it included/understood the dining rooms of 1 and 2nd class and the kitchens, the room of reception of 1e class, the open space of 3rd class, a store with vivres and residences for all confused classes.
Pont EThe bridge E or Principal Bridge, was high of 3,35 meters above the sea, it included/understood residences for all the classes and a store with vivres.
Pont FThe bridge F, also called Bridge Medium, was high only 0,76 meter, it made it possible to place 2nd and 3rd classes in addition to the dining room 3rd class, the kitchens, a court of squash, a swimming pool and Turkish baths electric.
Pont GThe bridge G, also called Lower Pont was 1,8 meter in lower part of the sea level, it included/understood residences for 2nd and 3rd classes, the baggage holds of 1st class, the stores with vivres, the cargo and the room of sorting of the mail.
Pont OrlopThe Orlop bridge was located at 4,11 meters in lower part of the sea level, it did not include/understand residences but baggage holds for 1st and 2nd class, of the stores with vivres, the holds cargo , the cars and the postal hold.
Pont des BallastsThe bridge of the Ballasts located just in lower part of the Orlop bridge did not include/understand to him either any residences but the engine room, the engines, the coal bunkers and the fresh water cisterns.
Lifeboats of Titanic
See also: Lifeboats of Titanic
See also: Cargo of Titanic
Southampton in England with on its board 953 Passager S including 31 trans Manche and 886 team members. With 18:35, arrived at Cherbourg in Normandy, 24 Passager S trans Manche unload and 274 embark, mainly 1st class. With 20:10, the Paquebot installs Cherbourg for Queenstown (today Cobh) in Ireland.
New York with on its board 1.316 Passager S and 885 team members. The captain Edward Smith planned to take his retirement after this crossing; it was to thus ensure the command of Titanic only for this single time. At the beginning of Afternoon, three Ship S, the Baltic , the America and the Noordam announces Glace S about to the same place. In evening, a fifth Ship, the Californian , sends the same message but the crew does not hold of it account and the Paquebot is thorough at full speed, probably in the objective to take down the blue Ruban rewarding the fastest crossing for the Atlantique (or quite simply to impress the press). With 19:30, the Paquebot receives three new messages of the Californian announcing large Iceberg S. to him To 21:40, whereas the Température is not any more that of some degrees, the Mesaba , sends to him also a description of Glace S but this last is not given to the watchers of the crow's nest. With 22:00, the 2 watchers of the crow's nest are replaced by Frederick Fleet and Reginald Lee, the external Température becomes null later like that of the Eau half an hour. To 22:55, the Californian , then taken in the Ice to 20 miles in the north of the Titanic , sends a message to all the Navire S neighborhood, on the Titanic it is intercepted by the radio operator operator who answers Release! You conceal! You scramble our radio operator traffic! , whereas RMS Titanic advances with 22,5 nodes (41,7 km/h) (Like Quickly Danger). With 00:20 water invades already the districts of the crew in front of the Bridge E. With 00:25, the order is given to make assemble the women and the children in first in the lifeboats and the RMS Carpathia , a Navire having collected the hazard warning signal travels to any vapor but this Navire is slow (17 nodes) and the presence of Glace S slows down it still more. To 00:45, the first rocket of distress is sent, the boat n°7 is lowered with only 28 Passager S against 65 possible. With 00:55, the boats n°6 and n°5 are lowered with respectively 28 and 28 people. The remainder of the boats is moored with approximately 60 people on board until approximately 2:00 of the morning. With 2:10, the Commander raises the operators radio operator Jack Philips and Harold Bride of their function. With 2:17, Thomas Andrews is seen only in the smoking-room of 1 class, the Commander turns over on the footbridge, the Orchestre stops playing right before the fall of the Cheminée front. With 2:18, the lights of RMS Titanic flicker last once then die out. One moment later the Paquebot breaks into two. Whereas the front part runs, the back part floats during a few moments and fills of water slowly until it sinks in its turn 2 hours and 40 minutes after the collision. The Température of the Eau is then of -3°C. Much later, with 3:30, the passengers of the boats sees fires of the Carpathia . 40 minutes later, the first boat, the n°2, is recovered by the Navire of assistance. At 5:30, the Californian prevented by the Frankfürt arrives on the spot of the disaster. The last boat, is recovered with 8:30, the second Officier Charles Lightoller is the last to be gone up on board. The Carpathia travels then towards New York with 8:50, Joseph Bruce Ismay telegraphy with the White Star Line the shipwreck of RMS Titanic .
Shipwreck, the King d' Angleterre, George V, addresses her condolences to the families of the victims by a telegram sent to Ismay. George V sends in her turn a Télégramme with the American president William Howard Taft. Armand Fallières, president French, sends a Télégramme to George V to express to him also its condolences.
Halifax (Nova Scotia), Canada with an aim of finding corpses. Later, the Minia , the Montmagny and the Algerine carried out the same operation. On the whole only 328 bodies were fished out, 119 were returned to the sea because of their too bad condition and 229 were brought back to Halifax where the majority were buried there.
RMS Carpathia unloads with New York under a beating rain, the survivors of 3rd class unload into last towards 23:00, some are accommodated by their family, others are lodged by hotels time to find their close relations or to regain the England with the expenses of the White Star Line. Certain survivors of 1 class return in their residence by private train.
Cemetery S of the city
A relatively significant number of personalities travelled on the Titanic , here are the principal ones:
- John Jacob Astor IV, American Colonel , inventive, writer,…, ()) momentary of third class to 1:05, 650.
With 12:00, hour of its departure for the inaugural crossing, the Titanic gently deviated from sound Quai port of Southampton while deriving using five Remorqueur S. With Bâbord, the turbulences caused by powerful the Hélice S made pitch the New York , a Navire moored just at side. The displacement of water caused such a tension that the mooring ropes broke. Whereas the Titanic took speed, the back of the New York , started to derive in direction from the poop from the Titanic , but the commander managed to avoid accuracy the New York .
After the shipwreck
- the May 2nd 1912, RMS Adriatic is on the point of leaving Liverpool for New York with on its board Joseph Bruce Ismay, the Officier S and the surviving team members of the Titanic . A case containing a Maquette Titanic is charged on the Navire, this Maquette was initially intended to be presented in the offices New Yorkean of the White Star Line, but it was brought back in England for obvious reasons. At the time of the Handling, a vertical Fissure is formed skittle to the higher bridge where one of the cracks was formed created by the Iceberg. Moreover, instead of the 20 boats normally present, the Maquette contains only 16.
the April 13rd 1935, a Cargo liner English, transporting coal of Newcastle to Halifax, crosses in middle of the night the place of the Naufrage, one of the watchers, Thomas Reeves is seized suddenly by an anguish. With 23:40, it cannot be prevented from shouting " Right obstacle in front! ". A Iceberg spouts out then of the darkness, the Cargo succeeds in avoiding it but it was found surrounded by the Glace, it took 9 days for the Brise-glaces to tow it at good port. This Cargo was called the Titanian and Thomas Reeves, the watcher had been born the April 15th 1912.
the girl of the Commander Edward Smith, Helen, loses its first husband, the captain John Gilbertson, reached bilieuse fever on board the first Navire which it ordered. It remarie in Sydney Russel-Cook and is confined of twins in 1923. Itself is killed in an accident of Chasse in 1930. One year later, his/her mother, Eleanor Smith, dies, reversed by a Taxi. His/her son, Simon, die in service during the Second world war and his/her daughter, is victim of the Poliomyélite in 1947.
Comparable maritime disastersWith its time, the shipwreck of the Titanic is the greatest maritime disaster in times of peace
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