# Tin

The tin is a chemical element of the family of the Cristallogène S, symbol Sn and Atomic number 50.

It is a Métal gray-money, malleable, fairly ductile with room temperature.

The name of Latin origin “stannum” or “stagnum” was initially used for a mixture of money and Plomb.

## Characteristics

Tin is a metal highly crystallized which “shouts” or “cries” when one folds of it a bar (rupture of the crystalline connections).
It resists corrosion by the Sea water and fresh water, but can be attacked by the Acide S forts.

## History

Tin was already known in the Antiquité, on all planet. The Bronze, Alloy of Copper and tin, was known before. In Mésopotamie, with Ur, one found objects out of bronze gone back to 5000  years before Jesus-Christ. Jules César described the tin ore exploitation in the mines of Cornouailles (Great Britain).

From the United Kingdom, the road of tin passes as a Gaulle, borrowing the Rhone and one of the objectives of the conquest Cesarean is to make safe this way of provisioning.

## Bronze

The Bronze is the first Alliage which was carried out and used by the man. Its influence was so large that one period of the Préhistoire (protohistoire) was called “Bronze Age” (of approximately 2000 with 800  before J. - C.) in reference to this alloy. The name “bronze” would come from Brindisi, town of Italy, famous in antiquity for its metallurgy of bronze.

## Allotropic varieties

With atmospheric pressure, pure tin has two allotropic varieties (it can exist in two crystalline forms). Below 13  °C, tin is in form $\ beta$, it is the tin glazing, of density 7,28  g.cm-3. Above 13  °C, the tin glazing is transformed slowly into gray tin, of structure diamond, it is the form $\ alpha$, of density 5,75  g.cm-3.

This transformation and the density switching which accompanies it affects the mechanical resistance of material. Below -50  °C, the transformation is fast and tin becomes pulverulent. It is the " plague of the étain".

It was advanced by certain historians that the allotropic change in form of tin could play a part in the defeats of Napoleon 1er in Russia, the buttons of the uniforms becoming breakable, involving for the soldiers cold discomfort and excessive exposure.

## Uses

### In the form of tin

• Tinplate: fine sheets of mild steel covered with a thin layer of tin, generally by electrodeposition. The tinplate is especially used to manufacture the metallic containers (boxes of Conserve).

• Brazing: The filler is consisted an alloy, often of tin (at a rate of 2 to 63%) with the Plomb, at low melting point (185  °C). Because of increasingly large mistrust with respect to lead, the composition evolves to alloys without lead, for example tin-copper or tin money, much more expensive and requiring a higher temperature (225  °C).
• Tinning: tinning consists in covering a metal part with a fine layer of tin to guarantee good electrical contacts. Pure tin (without lead) can however form " whiskers" , i.e. micrometric wire likely to cause short-circuits. The formation process of the " whiskers" , which lasts several months, is badly included/understood (it seems that the intensity of the magnetic field plays a part). Remedies exist (additions of traces of other metals at the time of the deposit of the layer of tin).
• Currencies: One often incorporates tin in the coins. The coins of 50 hundreds, 20 hundreds and 10 hundreds of Euro contain 1  of it; %.
• Welding: of share its good conductivity and of its relatively low melting point (in particular when it is associated with the Plomb), tin is very usually used to weld electric components onto printed circuits.
• Crockery and decoration: generally in “English metal”, a tin alloy (of 70 with 94  %), of Antimony (of 5 with 24  %) and of Copper (until 5  %).
• Produces anti-algae: one treats the hulls of boat with a painting containing a substance derived from the Tributylétain (C4H9) 3Sn. These compounds used to prevent the fixing of the algae on the hulls of the ships are toxic for the environment, which in makes currently limit the use.
• Glass: to manufacture the flat Glass, the most widespread process is the floatation on tin bed in fusion ( float knell ).
• Superconductive: the alloy tin Niobium Nb3Sn is superconductive at “high” temperatures relatively (temperature criticizes 19  K). Its performances: Density of current of 750  A/mm ² under 12  Tesla designates it as the successor of niobium Titane for the applications to large scales.

### In the form of bronze

• Sculpture: the noble alloy for the Sculpture S is bronze (approximately 80  % coppers, 20  % tin).

• Valves and fittings: use an intermediate alloy between the Laiton and bronzes it which includes/understands 10  % of tin and 3% of Zinc.
• Pipe of Organ: use an alloy including/understanding 77,5  % of tin, 22  % of lead and 0,5  % of copper. It gives a beautiful sonority, resists well corrosion and guard a beautiful color for the pipes of “watch”.
• Bell: use bronze containing between 21,5 and 24  % of tin (more especially as the bell is small).
• Canon of artillery with powder
• the mussif But “is a tin disulfide of aspect gilded, used in particular in the Byzantine Art for the icons and the mosaics.

## Others

The Malaysia is the country where the majority of tin world reserves are.

## Symbolic system

• the Noces of tin symbolize the 10 years of Mariage in the French folklore.

• tin is the 4th level in the progression of the Sarbacane Sportive.

## External bonds

• tin Whiskers
• Any knowledge on tin

Simple: Chock Zh-min-nan: Sn (goân-sò͘) Zh-yue: 錫

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