The Tibetans train alive people of Asia in current the autonomous region of Tibet and in the close Chinese provinces. They compose one of the 56 Nationalités of China. Approximately 5% of the Tibetans live in exile.
Historically, the Tibet included/understood three principal areas: the area of U-Tsang corresponding to most of the current autonomous region of Tibet, the Amdo incorporated in the Chinese province of the Qinghai and the Kham of which the oriental party is incorporated in the Chinese province of the Sichuan, its Western part being attached to the autonomous region.
Figures of populationIn 2000, the number of Tibetans in the whole of these areas was of approximately: 5400000 according to Office of State of the Statistics. The Gouvernement Tibetan in exile with Dharamsala in India gives an estimate close to this figure of 6 million Tibetans currently living to the Tibet. It should be added that approximately: 150000 Tibetans fled the Tibet and currently live in exile, mainly in India.
The population Tibetan underwent significant drops between the censuses of 1953 and 1964 (from 2,77 to 2,50 million), as the figures of Chinese source indicate it.
Consequences of the Chinese presenceThe Chinese takeover and the presence in Tibet since the Années 1950 involved a big number of victims among the population Tibetan, the main causes while being the engagements, repression and the famines related to the “Grand step ahead”. Although there does not exist consensus on figuring, their real number is most probably about several hundreds of thousands of people.
The Gouvernement Tibetan in exile estimates, following investigations and of the collection of testimonys, that: 1200000 Tibetans died directly or indirectly consequently of the occupation of Tibet by the Chinese army between 1949 and 1979. However, this evaluation is called into question by some which consider the figures exaggerated. The International commission of the lawyers qualified in a report/ratio of 1959 the massacres perpetrated in Tibet by the Chinese authorities of genocide. The January 11th 2006, the Supreme court of Spain announced that it was going to inform an investigation concerning the implication of seven former leaders Chinese, inter alia the former president Jiang Zemin and the former Prime Minister Li Peng, in a genocide in Tibet. This instruction is the consequence of a decree of the Spanish Constitutional court of the December 26th 2005 which authorizes the treatment of the complaints for genocide, even if they do not imply Spanish nationals.
According to the Government Tibetan in exile, there would exist a policy of transfer of population to Tibet, and a programme of abortion and sterilization forced of the women Tibetans. Tens of thousands of women Tibetans would have been forced by the force to marry Chinese colonists.
Still today, every year, approximately: 2500 Tibetans flee, with the danger of their life, while crossing the Himalayas towards the Nepal and the India. Approximately a third of these refugees is children who come to seek an education in language Tibetan there.
Policy of the single child in TibetIt is in 1983 qu ' a policy of family planning intended for the Tibetans was instituted for the first time, initially with a limitation with two children in the urban areas, then in 1984 with a limitation with three children in the rural areas, except for the border zones. However, measurements envisaged were put rather little in practice, which led, after the census of 1990, in a campaign intended to reinforce the application with it, mainly in the rural areas. It is of this time that date the implementation of the system of the fines, each local authority being officially Master of its application. A system of quotas of births was also instituted; these quotas, defined by the government of Lhassa, were distributed between the various administrative entities.
The real methods of application of this policy are the subject of various analyzes:
- According to the analysis of Kate Saunders, journalist specialist in Tibet and China, analyst with Tibet Information Network , the civils servant Tibetans would have right only to one child; the families having three children or more would be submitted to various sanctions: a fine of: 1800 yuans per annum (amount are equivalent to the annual income of a well paid civil servant), the loss of allowances or advantages related to employment, and even the forced abortion or sterilization. Moreover, the supernumerary children could not obtain work permit, and would be excluded from the systems of education and health care.
- On the other hand, according to Gu Baochang, official of the Chinese government, in Tibet, if the Han civils servant have right only to one child, the civils servant Tibetans could have two of them. A study carried out for the “Chinese Center of information on Tibet” precise that the application of the policy of family planning would remain rather flexible in Tibet, and that no forced abortion would be practiced there.
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