Capture of Jerusalem by SaladinSaladin reigned on the Egypt since 1169 and had made ousting of the Christian out of Palestine the goal of its life. Controlling Egypt and the Syria, Saladin encircled the kingdom of the cross ; the July 4th 1187, Saladin gained the Bataille of Hattin, and besieged the town of Jerusalem defended by Balian d' Ibelin. The Christian forces were limited to Antioche, Tripoli, Tyr and the Forteresse of Margat after its rendering.
As of its accession on the throne of Saint Pierre in October 1187, the pope Gregoire VIII wanted to reconquer the lost territories. With this intention, it emitted the bubble Audita tremendi which called with the third crusade by requesting the assistance of kings d' Angleterre and France. Henry II of England and Philippe Auguste ceased their war one against the other, and imposed the “Dîme saladine” on their subjects to finance a new crusade.
Although the sovereigns were of agreement to leave together, the departure of this crusade was very delayed because France and England had taken again the hostilities; moreover, Richard Lion-hearted, the son of Henry II, had returned in conflict against his/her father.
Catch of Acre by the crusadersThe Germanic emperor Frederic Barberousse also answered the call of the pope; he took the cross with the cathedral of Mainz the March 27th 1188 and was the first to be left in 1189. He had to face the opposition of the Byzantine Empereur Isaac II Ange, which had concluded a secret treaty with Saladin. Frederic crossed the Byzantine grounds as quickly as it could and took the town of Iconium the May 18th 1189. Unfortunately for his crusade, the Frederic Emperor drowned the June 10th 1190. Although its army was more numerous than that of Saladin, its troops dispersed immediately after its death, and those which remained were quickly overcome as of their arrival in Syria.
Richard and Philippe arrived by the sea separately in 1191. On way, Richard made halt with Cyprus, where it took shade of the treatment which was reserved to him by the sovereign of the island, Isaac Doukas Comnène. At the end of May, Richard had conquered all the island, which it sold later with Guy de Lusignan, the king de Jérusalem. During this time, Philippe had arrived at Tyr and had been combined with Conrad de Montferrat, which also wished to be the sovereign of the Holy City. With the assistance of the remainders of the army of Frederic, they made the seat Saint-Jean-in Acre and Richard arrived in June to take the command of the seat. The army of Saladin tried an opening, but was overcome and the city was taken the July 12th.
The three Christian commanders fought then to be able it between them: the German commander Léopold V of Austria wished to be recognized same manner that Richard and Philippe, but Richard removed the banner of Léopold of the city. Philippe, to him also wearied attitude of Richard, left the Holy Land in August.
Peace treaty between Richard and SaladinThe August 22nd, Richard carried out the 3 000 Moslem prisoners which it had captured at Midsummer's Day d' Acre, when it felt that Saladin did not honor the terms with the rendering of the city. Richard then decided to take the port of Jaffa with an aim of launching an attack against Jerusalem; Saladin tried of to prevent it by attacking it at the time of the Bataille of Arsouf that Richard gained in a bright way.
In January 1192, Richard was ready to go on Jerusalem, but Saladin had obtained reinforcements and had strengthened the city. Richard arrived for Jerusalem twice, but had to move back in front of the more army of Saladin. Saladin then tried to take again Jaffa in July, but was overcome by the forces of Richard the July 31st.
The September 2nd 1192, Richard and Saladin concluded a treaty according to which Jerusalem would remain under Moslem control, but would remain allowed the Christian pilgrims without weapon. However a band along the Mediterranean energy of Jaffa until Haïfa was allocated finally to the Christians. Richard left the Holy Land to return in Occident at the end of September, finishing the third crusade.
Foundation of the Teutonique order and fights intereuropéennesThe crusade had more effects on Europe than on the the Middle East: the Germanic ones which remained out of Holy Land after the crusade formed the base of the teutonic Chevaliers, which launched out in the Baltic Croisades. The failure of the third crusade will generate the call to the Fourth crusade six years later.
Léopold held rancour in Richard of its behavior at Midsummer's Day d' Acre and did it captive in 1192, when Richard crossed Germany for England. Richard never saw the town of Jerusalem, even as a pilgrim, convinced that God had ordered that it did not conquer it. If it returned precipitately to Occident, it is undoubtedly to limit the projections of his/her brother Jean Without Ground and of Philippe II, which seized its grounds during its absence.
- the second and third crusade
- History of the pilgrimage of Jerusalem
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