Thessalie is an area of the septentrional Greece on the sea Égée in the South of the Macedonia. According to certain specialists the name in Thessalie comes from that from the invaders Doriens, the " Thessaloi ", for others of the " Thesprotes ", inhabitants of Épire. It is made of two large plains separated by hills. The area is limited to North by an assembly line which culminates in the East with the mount Olympe and to the West with the mount Pinde.
During antiquity this area has, for many people, an strategic importance, because it is located on the road of the Macedonia and the Hellespont. It had an important port with Pagasai. Thanks to the extent of its plains, the corn and the cattle are the main wealths of the area and a vital commercial resource. Thessalie is also one of the rare areas of Greece where one can practice the breeding of the horses, from where the important cavalry of which laid out Thessaliens.
The principal cities of Thessalie are: Krannon, Larissa, Pharsale and Phères. They are of almost equivalent importance and so none of enters it during the history will not be able to claim with hegemony. The principal river, the Pennate ancient, traversed the valley of Tempé, between the Olympe and the mount OSI, before being thrown in the sea Égée. The aristocracy was sole owner of the ground and had vast domains where it practiced only the breeding of the horses. Agriculture was entrusted to serfs, the Pénestes which paid to the owner a tax and could keep the surplus of harvest. They had an intermediate row between the slaves and the free men. They could neither be sold, nor put with death. They were also employed in the army, that is to say in the navy or the cavalry.
Iliade divides into six territories the toponyms (IL.II, 695-746):
- Antrôn maritime the , Itôn mother of the ewes , Phylakè ( litt. " Garde"), Ptéléos with the bulky grass beds ( auj. Ftelia) and Pyrasos flowered, enclosed crowned of Déméter ;
- Boïbè ( auj. Bio), Glaphyraï, Iôlkos built well and Phèraï close to the lake Boebis ;
- Méliboïa, Méthônè, Olizôn rocky and Thaumakia (all out of Magnesia);
- Ithômè rock , Oïkhalia (close to Trikka) and Trikka ( auj. Trikala);
- the MT Titanos with the white heads , Astérion, Hypéréïa (source), Orménion;
- Argissa, Èlonè, Gérènos (where Nestor, according to a tradition, would have been high) , Gyrtonè, Oloosson white the ( auj. Elassona), Orthè.
PrehistoryWith the Bronze Age, the influence mycénienne was diffused in almost all the area starting from the prosperous site of Iolcos.
Thessalie is occupied a long time by only pastoral populations, probably the Pélasges, which will be replaced by the Achaens about the middle of the thousand-year-old IIe. With the XIIe century, the area is invaded by tribes Dorien born from North and the North-West which migrated towards the South, but they are Thessaliens of Thesprotie which will conquer the area. The Thesprotes are, with the Molosses one of the principal tribes of Épire. They will réduir the indigenous population with the state of serfs. Some noble families, of which that of the Aleuades, are essential each one in a canton.
They manage to constitute a League: The League thessalienne (or Confédération thessalienne) which is directed by a federal magistrate, the Tagos. With the VIIe century, the Ligue thessalienne is powerful in Greece North and extends its capacity on the close mountain dwellers. Thessalie, majority with the council Amphictyonique of Delphes benefits from it to extend its influence in central Greece. It imposes its supremacy in Phocide and even seeks to subject the Béotie.
The power thessalienne is of short duration. At the beginning of the Ve century, Thessaliens are beaten by the Béotie NS and are pushed back by the Phocidiens in their country. During the Wars Médiques, they are initially subjected to the Perses when the Greek decide abondonner the defense of Temple to fold up itself on the Thermopyles, but during the invasion of King Perse Xerxès I (-486/-465) they asked of the assistance to Sparte.
At the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, Thessalie is combined with Athens. Later at the time of the wars between the Greek Macedonia and cities, Thessalie will act as area plug. With the IVe century, the attempt at Jason, Tyrant of Phères to carry out the unit of the area causes the interventions of the Thébains and the Macedonians its old allies, thus opening the way with the conquest of the Greece by the King of Macedonia Philippe II (-359/-336). Thessalie, towards -353/-352, will then be attached to the empire Macedonian, then Romain when the Macedonia falls into their hands. Rome will give again its independence in to him -196, then it, in -148 will -148 be incorporated in the province Romaine of Macedonia.
In the Greek Mythology, Thessalie was the kingdom of the Centaure S and the Lapithes, as well as the starting point of the forwarding of the Argonautes, Pélias and Éson being kings d' Iolcos (current site: the town of Volos).
In Thessalie with the general direction, Iliade distinguishes the pelasgic Argos (in the South) from the Thessalie to the restricted direction: Achilles wire of Shovelful controls the first (including/understanding Alopé, Alos, Hellas with the beautiful women , Phthie with the fertile fields and feeder hero and Trékhis) (IL.II, 681-684 and I, 155); second is divided into several territories (cf Géographie for the toponyms and classification of the territories) under various authorities, namely, in terr. 1 anc. Protésilas, then Podarcès wire of Iphiclos (II, 695-709), in terr. 2 Eumélos wire of Admète and Alceste, divine of the women and most beautiful of the girls of Pélias (II, 711-715), in terr. 3 Philoctète then bastard Médon of Oïlée by Rhéné (II, 716-728), in terr. the 4 Podalire doctors and Machaon, both children of Asclépios (II, 729-735; III, 193,194,204), in terr. 5 Eurypyle wire of Évémon (II, 734-736) and in terr. 6 Polypoetès wire of Pirithoos and Hippodamie, Léontée wire of Coronos going down from Çaenée (II, 738-746).
Thessalie was regarded as the country of the magicians.
Thessalie is divided into 4 prefectures Nome:
- Magnesia, in modern Greek Magnisia
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