The theology (of the Greek θεολογία, literally “speech on the divinity or the divine one, Θεός”) is the study, which wants to be rational, of realities relative to the divine ones, even if other disciplines, in particular the Philosophie, the Psychologie or the Sociologie, philology, give an account of God, of the Croyance S and the “religious fact”. In the Religion S monotheists especially, she is regarded as the science of the Révélation, is based on the study of the religious texts, their interpretation, with an aim of lighting the believing or the faithful on the way of acting or of believing according to her religion.
In fact, with the most strict direction one can speak about theology only for finishing paganism, Western and orthodoxe Christianity, because it is the product of the meeting between ancient philosophy and the religion. There was marginally a true theology Moslem and Jewish, within the meaning of a meeting between the doctrines of these religions and philosophy (ancient), but the way was quickly crossed; so by theology one understands any speech on god (X) and the religion then the concept edulcorates oneself, the myths and the science of the religions becoming of theology.
TerminologyThe Old ones told Mythe S. Parfois they laid down them in writing. They sacrilized them more or less, and with time the degree of faith that they granted to them varied. They were from time to time able from there to canonize them and give them an absolute value, to make Scriptures of it, a Mythologie. The Old ones did not make nevertheless theology. Not having dogmas but rites, these people did not worry to dogmatize, nor of the systematic refinement of our intellectual tournaments in connection with (S) God (X) and of the faith.
Nevertheless, if the Old ones did not practice theology, it is necessary to raise the Greek and pagan origin of the concept. The first to have employed the east term Plato seems which, in the Republic , puts in the mouth of Socrate the word θεολογία in connection with the Mythologie. And by theology, he understands, the context shows it clearly, a philosophical purification of the mythological presentation of the Gods. It is on this only account which the poets will find place in the ideal city that he proposes.
The term is taken again by Aristote to distinguish the philosophical and the theologists who tell, in poetic form, the Mythologie. However, in another passage of its work, he sees also three degrees of theoretic philosophy, the mathematical , the Physique and the “theological knowledge”, which is close to the Métaphysique. Other Greek authors employ also this word to indicate the cosmogony. The stoical do not hesitate to speak about “theological philosophy” in connection with the reflections over the divinity, and to regard it as a branch of philosophy.
Admittedly the myths are degraded in mythology. Admittedly the mythographes gather them in collections where the grivois overrides the serious one. But they survive and their force of it is not completely lost. The philosopher-theologists make place with the myth. Either that like Varron, they make myth a lower form of theology, or that they interpret it with the liking of their system. To take again the formula of Raynal Sorel, “granting a suspicion of reason to a presumedly drifting word for hailing best”, they wish to be made main of the myth. The method which knew sharpest and most durable success was the allegory whose Stoical ones were made the uncontested champions. But they were not the only ones to swear only by the allégorèse. And from the day when Philon applied the method to the reading of the Seventy, Christian theology, paradoxically, had been born….Because typology would not be included/understood that deploy the authors of New Testament seeking under the veil of the letter vétérotestamentaire the prophetic advertisement of the ministry, the passion and the resurrection of Christ without referring to the allegorical reading texts developed by the Greek philosophers. Better even, the parabolas of Jesus in the Gospels are already interpreted allegorically.
If the philosophical Latin speak little about theology, a passage of Varron remained famous: it distinguishes there mythical theology, physical theology and political theology. This passage was taken again by the Christian writers to justify their own step.
The use of the term in traditional philosophy, in the first centuries, caused a mistrust on behalf of the Christian authors. The terms “theology” and “theologists” remain associated with pagan mythology. However, Clément of Alexandria makes a distinction between the “theology of the Verb eternal” and the “mythology of Dionysos”. Little by little, the term does not get busy any more but for the new religion. However, its precise direction is not always the same one: the word “theology” can thus indicate the Écritures or the confession of the Christian faith. For other theologists, theology was the speech on the divinity in general, even on the only divinity of the Christ. The Western authors employ rather little the term before the time Scolastique, preferring expressions with the word sacer , such as doctrina crowned , crowned paginated or crowned eruditio . However, the Latin theologists ended up usually using it in their writings, and the word “theology” then received the direction, which it kept, of systematic study of the Christian doctrines.
As from the 16th century, the word theology becomes again more general. It is indeed used in the expression natural theology , which indicates the knowledge of God in a way considered as " naturelle". Consequently, it is also used for others Religion S that the Christianisme, in particular from the point of view of comparative study of the religions. Theology then indicates the image of God and divine in different the Religion S, like their Doctrine S.
Traditional philosophy, since the Présocratiques to the disciples of Leibniz, was often defined as the science of God, or the science of the absolute, therefore like theology. It was called also metaphysical, or philosophy first. It was named thus because it was regarded as the root, the source or the base of all sciences.
Theology and faith
One can consider that the made man of theology when it is interested in God or the god, as Mr. the Jordan made prose. But to employ the term of “theology” in a as broad direction implies as it is then quite difficult to exclude sciences from the religions or the sociology of the religion of the theological field. However, very few researchers in religious sciences or sociologists, if it is no, would not admit being a theologist! Will one suppose whereas theology requires a report/ratio believing, an existential relation, with his object? Just as according to Luther the justifying faith is different from the fides historica, there exists a theological habitus which does not prove the justification and the sanctification of the theologist, nor its vocation. Nobody can establish in all objectivity the existence of this report/ratio believing, unless confusing the consent of the faith and the reality of this one.
Negative theologyit is the theology which begins the description of god with what it is not
In the Judaism, God is at the same time Unique and Unknowable. It can be only approximate by the study of the Torah and its comments, like by the practice of the commands ( mitsvot ).
- Names of God in the Judaism
- Laws on the Bases of the Torah (wikisource)
- : Category: Jewish theologist
See also: Christian Theology, catholic Theology, Theology of the mormonism
The Christianisme is undoubtedly the Religion which asserted the concept of theology the most. Some of its currents thus developed a whole of dogmas and doctrines, which gave place to long controversies.
The importance of theology in Christianity is partly explained by expansive nature why already this religion with its birth had. Having had to be opposed to the philosophers empire, it very early had to find means of being made hear in the world gréco-Roman, by employing his terms, by recovering its categories. Of this fact rather quickly appeared in the empire a Christian Néo-platonisme, as well as forms of Aristotélisme modified. To this factor which one could say of voluntary Inculturation, the influence in return of the substrate gréco-Roman is added on the incipient Christian doctrines. This one was particularly open to this kind of possibility of the fact, inter alia, of the drafting of the Gospels in Greek and the particularly speculative nature of the Gospel of holy Jean. Thus, the identification, in Greek philosophy, of the to be and the Logos answers in the Gospel of Jean, the identification of God and the Logos (" At the beginning was the Verb, and the Verb was Dieu" Jn, 1,1).
Like all the religious movements, Christianity crossed during its history more than one movement of Pensée that it integrated, rejected, influenced. In addition to current denominational diversities and their related theologies, which one names traditionally the " Great heresies " like the Gnosticisme, were often syntheses of preexistent philosophical designs and Christianity. Thus, in this history of the meetings between the thought and Christianity, one can note, nearer to us, the paramount importance of this one in the philosophy of Kierkegaard, which places itself at the border of theology, ethical , Philosophie, testifying by there to plasticity to this concept in the Christian culture.
Theology in IslamSee Islam and the : Category: Running Moslem.
This term does not have the same importance as for Christian theology. Indeed, Moslem theology rests on the revelation by Mahomet through Coran of the existence of the Creator, Allah, single, omniscient and omnipotent. That thus imposes many limits of interpretations, because never the drawn philosophical lesson cannot blame the Coran.
Several theological schools were created starting from several systems of thought which clash:
- Initially the system methologic and the associated theology called Kalâm, based on the reflection.
- the Sufism, based on a Mystical study , to see esoteric Islam
In addition the number of Branches of Islam, with each one its particular doctrines, multiplies the number of theologies.
Jorge Luis Borges considers that there exist only two exact sciences: the theology which are built on the study of the consequences of writings founders considered as origin - or at least of inspiration - divine, and mathematical which proceed to a similar exercise, but this time starting from arbitrary Axiome S.
" To discourse on God, it is to want to play Mozart on a tambourine. "
“Theology it is simple like God and gods make three. ” Jacques Prévert
“Those which amuse me more, known as God, they are the theologists. ” Charles Péguy
“The doctor sees the man in all his weakness; the lawyer sees it in all his spite; the theologist in all his silly thing. ” Arthur Schopenhauer
“Stray in an immense forest during the night, I have only one small light to act. An unknown occurs which says to me: My friend, blows your candle for better finding your way. This unknown is a theologist. ” Denis Diderot…. One could answer Diderot that to be able to guide itself on stars it is initially necessary to extinguish its candle in the night
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