See also: Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt (October 27th 1858 with New York - January 6th 1919 with Oyster Bay, New York) is the twenty-sixth President of the United States of America. He succeeds William McKinley, assassinated, and starts its first mandate in September 1901 then, in 1905, he is elected for a second mandate until in 1909.
Roosevelt becomes president whereas it is only 42 years old: he is the youngest president of the United States. Large amateur of exercise, it incarnates a presidency which is not limited to the policy. He is very popular, which gives him much influence.
His/her parents, Theodore Roosevelt Sr and Martha Bulloch, come aristocratic families of Dutch origin and comfortably live incomes of their company of import-export. Teenager, it is frail and asthmatic and its parents, very easy, educate it at the house in the tradition calvinist.
In 1880, it finishes its studies with the Université Harvard and Marie with Alice Hathaway, the girl of a Banquier. It begins the study from the right, but gives up when it is elected at the assembly of the State of New York of 1882 with 1884 for the Republican party. His/her mother and his wife die the same day, the latter dies while being confined of their daughter, Alice Roosevelt Longworth. Theodore (25 years old) withdraws himself, in 1884, in a farm of the North Dakota to forget these tragedies.
He spends two years there by adopting the lifestyle of the American Cow-boy. “One cannot dream of a gravitational life for an young man in good health than that in a Ranch of this time. It is really a pleasant and healthy life; that taught me independence, tenacity and to make decisions quickly… I really and completely appreciated this life. ” This period is very important for its maturation: “I could never have become president without my experiments in North Dakota. ” It was tested, in this area, with the life of pioneer and stockbreeder. It essuya a material failure, but he thus acquired human qualities which made later him to it 26th president of the United States.
In 1886, it returns to New York where it is started again in the policy, writes three books and remarie with Edith Kermit Carow. The president Benjamin Harrison names it member of a commission on the federal civils servant. He directs then the police headquarter of New York in 1895. In 1897, the president William McKinley appoints it assistant secretary with the marine , a station where it prepares the war against Spain. It behaves there in “falcon”; he shows Spain of the destruction of the frigate Maine in Cuba (the proof in forever brought) and puts the navy in state of alert without the authorization of president McKinley.
When the war against Spain bursts in 1898, it engages with the head of a regiment of Cavalerie, the rough riders (that one translates by “the hard ones to cook”), which enables him to acquire a reputation of hero. It takes again then its political career in the State of New York, from which it is elected governor in 1898. It puts at back the leaders Republican party while fighting against corruption and the latter, to get rid some, present it like candidate to the vice-presidency, a station without scale.
It is quoted like having belonged to the big room of Minnesota.
1901 - 1904
- September 14th: president McKinley dies of the continuations of the wounds which were inflicted to him by an anarchistic assassin. In accordance with what the American Constitution provides, the vice-president Theodore Roosevelt is invested and becomes the twenty-sixth chair of the United States of America. It is only 42 years old and its come to power despairs its own party because of its social ideas .
May 12th: Roosevelt referee the conflict between: 100000 minors of Pennsylvania in strike since more than three months and their employers. The continuous strike until October when Roosevelt obtains a pay rise to them of: 10 % and a time limit of the working week. The coal mines were then crucial for the US economy.
May 20th: the American troops are withdrawn from Cuba where the first national government settles.
June 28th: vote law financing the construction of the Panama Canal.
September 2nd: Roosevelt makes a speech on the foreign Politics , where there employs a formula remained famous: “It is necessary to speak calmly while holding a large stick”. (Doctrines of Big Stick)
- February 14th: Roosevelt creates the ministry for the trade and the work (which became later two separate ministries).
March 14th: Roosevelt creates the first natural reserve of birds on Pelican Island, Florida.
November 3rd: the government of Roosevelt supports the insurrection of Panama against the Colombia. The United States recognizes the independence of Panamá on November 6th and negotiates a treaty which gives them the control of the canal zone for 100 years against 10 million USD and an annual rent of: 250000 USD.
February 11th: Roosevelt declares the neutrality of the United States in the war between Russia and Japan.
June 26th: the Republican party indicates Roosevelt like candidate with the presidential election.
November 8th: Roosevelt gains the presidential election against the democrat Alton B. Parker. The vote of the electoral College watch a Net divides between the States of the south, favorable to the democratic party, and the States of north and the center, favorable to the Republican party.
December 6th: in its annual speech with the American Congress, Roosevelt pronounces the Corollaire Roosevelt which extends the Doctrine established by the president James Monroe (about 1823) to the whole of the world Occident Al by affirming that the United States would intervene in the event of main issue going against their interests.
1905 - 1908
January 21st: pursuant to the doctrines interventionist, the United States takes the control of the businesses of the Dominican Republic.
February 1st: Roosevelt created the National service of the forests.
March 4th: nomination of Theodore Roosevelt for a second presidential mandate.
September 6th: end of the war enters Russia and Japan. Roosevelt which was used as referee in this conflict receives the Nobel Prize of peace on December 10th, 1906.
January 16th: opening of the conference of Algeciras in Spain, where Roosevelt tries to arbitrate the conflict between France and Germany concerning the Morocco.
June 8th: Roosevelt creates the first eighteen “national monuments”, protected natural zones.
June 29th: Roosevelt supports a law giving to the federal government the capacity to control the tariffs of the railway freight. This law limits competition between the companies and prevents from granting the dried up preferential ones to the great industry groups.
June 30th: Roosevelt signs a law authorizing the federal government to inspect the factories of food and obliging the manufacturers to list the ingredients.
August 23rd: the Cuban president requires the intervention of the American troops following riots. Roosevelt sends the army in October.
December 12th: Roosevelt names Straus as a Minister commercial and work. It is the first representative of the Jewish minority to obtain a station in the government of the United States.
February 20th: Roosevelt signs a law on the Immigration enabling him to prohibit the arrival of the Japanese.
October 22nd: beginning of a financial panic caused by the great variations of the Stock Exchange. Roosevelt returns precipitately from voyage to intervene, but the fear of a news depression is tough.
November 16th: admission of the Oklahoma in the American Union; it is the 46e State.
December 16th: Roosevelt sends the American marine to make a world tour which lasted until February 1908. The ships are accommodated with enthusiasm in many ports and this makes it possible the United States to make display of their power.
June 20th: Roosevelt creates the National park of Mesa Verde.
At the end of its second mandate, Roosevelt, in accordance with its engagements, is not represented. It leaves for a Safari to Africa from which it returns with more: 3000 trophies of killed animals.
August 7th: Roosevelt, dissatisfied with the policy followed by its successor, William Howard Taft, tries to remove the nomination of the Republican party to represent itself with the elections. The Party chooses Taft again and Roosevelt decides to join a reforming party, the Party progressist. It obtains a better score than Taft, but the division of the Republican party allows the democratic candidate, Woodrow Wilson, to gain the election.
In foreign politics, T. Roosevelt behaves like the creator of an American empire with the takeover of the Spanish possessions to the the Caribbean and in the Pacific Ocean. It foments a rebellion with the Panama to obtain the independence of this area belonging to the Colombia in order to build there a channel under American control. Roosevelt, enthusiastic defender of the navy, thinks that the passage by the Isthme of Panama is important to create a strong and coherent navy.
Roosevelt institutes a corollary with the doctrines of president Monroe by affirming that the United States must intervene to defend their interests in the whole of the world. It intervenes personally in the arbitration of the conflict between Russia and Japan, which is worth the Nobel Prize of peace to him, and in that between France and Germany on the Moroccan question.
Roosevelt is in favor of a federal capacity extremely, able to regulate the economic activity. It attacks the large companies, which it shows to make of the benefit to the detriment of the Consommateur S, and engages of the procedures against large the capitalist of the Railroad, the Pétrole and the Agro-alimentaire. The launching of this crusade against the industrial trusts takes place in a long speech of more than 30 pages made with the Chambre of the representatives. Theodore Roosevelt commits himself making respect the Loi Sherman. He also intervenes to arbitrate the fight between the minors in strike and employers; he enabled them to obtain the 8 hours day and higher wages, which he calls a “equitable agreement”. Roosevelt belongs to the current progressist.
Roosevelt is the first really chair worried by the safeguarding of natural spaces and fauna. It created the bases of the system of national parks, national monuments and national forests as well as natural reserves while making pass the grounds under federal control. In the same way, in 1902, the National Complaint Act (or Newlands Act) gives to the federal government the supreme authority for the construction of Barrage S or for the projects of Irrigation. A new federal agency, the Complaint Service , is created and collaborates with the scientists. The management of water passes under federal control, in particular in the western part of the territory. On the whole it was nearly a million km ² which were controlled and protected by the federal government. Under its presidential mandates the parks of Crater Lake are created, Wind Cave and Mesa Verde.
Policy concerning the civic rights, the minorities and immigration
In the field of the fight against the Discrimination S, the statement of its actions and its feelings is mitigated more. It is against the equality between women and men and regards as the lower minorities Indian, Asian and, in particular, black. One notes that in his memories, as in the tables which represent the battle which makes of him a national hero, the presence and the determining action of the regiments made up of American Blacks is occulted. Roosevelt supported the vote of laws prohibiting the Lynchage, but rather to prevent the popular riots that to protect the Blacks which are generally the victims. He is however the first president to name a representative of the Jewish minority at a ministerial position.
The origin of “Teddy Bear”, which indicates a Teddy bear, is the subject of several unverifiable anecdotes. Most current is the following one: in 1903, Roosevelt returned bredouille of a hunting to the Ours four days. Believer to give pleasure, the organizers connected a black bear cub with the foot of a tree in order to satisfy the cartouches of the president: outraged by this setting with death, Theodore Roosevelt makes release the animal. Two Russian emigrants, Rose and Morris Mictchom, immortalisent this history by creating a teddy bear which they baptized Teddy. Success was immediate since, little time afterwards, they creates their own workshop The Ideal Novelty in Toy Co .
January 1st, 1907, president Roosevelt would have tightened: 8513 hands in only one day. A record.
In the Youth of Picsou , it appears in two episodes. The first time in the episode Buck Picsou of Badlands when Theodore Roosevelt is in South Dakota. The second in the Invader of Strong Donaldville when, following an error of the Beavers Juniors, it takes Picsou for a danger and then besieges the fort of Donaldville (where the safe of Picsou will be built).
It appears for the last time in the series in the episode Harpie of the Opening of Culebra , where the intrigue proceeds in the surroundings of the building site of the Panama Canal, and where appears in particular the Esteban general and the woman of the president like another version of the origin of “Teddy Bear”.
It also appears in the novel " Aliéniste" of Caleb Carr, where it takes part in an criminal investigation as a chief of the police force of New York.
QuotationsBehind the visible government sits an invisible government which does not owe fidelity to the people and no responsibility is recognized. To destroy this invisible government, to destroy the impious bond which connects the businesses corrupted with the policy, itself corrupted, such is the duty of the statesman . Theodore Roosevelt. City by Dieter Rüggeberg: " Gehimpolitik" , p.75
T. Roosevelt is regarded by the Americans as one of their larger presidents.
Roosevelt inaugurates on March 18th, 1911 a stopping close to Phoenix, in Arizona, which bears its name and remains still today most dam of the United States. It belongs to the four presidents carved in the granite of the Mont Rushmore.
The nuclear Porte-avions WORN Theodore Roosevelt also pays homage to him.
- Memorial of Quentin Roosevelt, wire junior by president Theodore Roosevelt (death in aerial combat on July 14th, 1918) set up on the territory of the commune of Coulonges-Cohan.
- Theodore Roosevelt Junior, oldest son of president Theodore Roosevelt, American general who unloaded in the first wave of assault to Utah Beach on June 6th, 1944.
- Texts of Theodore Roosevelt
Sources and bibliography
- Jean-Michel Lacroix, History of the United States, Paris, PUF, 2006, ISBN 2130554776
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