The one night Dream of summer
Dream the one night of summer ( has Midsummer Night' S Dream ) is a comedy of Shakespeare, written in 1595, published in 1600 and played for the first time in 1604.
It is a complex history whose action proceeds in Greece and joins together two couples of young lovers, Lysandre, Démétrius, Helene and Hermia. Hermia wants to marry in Lysandre, but his/her father, Egée, want that it Marie with Démétrius, with which Hélèna is in love. Lysandre and Hermia flee in the forest, continued by Démétrius, which itself is continued by Hélèna. During this time, Obéron, king of the Fairy S, ordered in Puck to pour a potion on the eyelids of his wife, Titania. It enters the forest with Puck. During the night, confusion reigns.
The most known scene is the appearance of Bottom, which carries a head of ass, with Titania, which by the magic of Puck fell in love from there.
- Thésée , duke of Athens.
- Égée , father of Hermia.
- Lysandre , Démétrius , in love with Hermia.
- Philostrate , intendant of amusements die Thésée.
- Bottom , Tisserand.
- Lecoing , carpenter.
- Flute , mender of bellows.
- Face mask , ironmonger.
- Skimped , carpenter.
- Dies of hunger (or Starveling) , tailor.
- Hippolyta , queen of the Amazones.
- Hermia , girl of Égée, in love with Lysandre.
- Héléna , in love with Démétrius.
- Obéron , king of the fairies.
- Titania , queen of the fairies.
- Puck or Robin Good devil , Imp.
- Fleur of the Peas , Cobweb , Moth , Grain of Mustard , Sylph S.
- a Fairy .
- Fairies and spirits of the continuation of the king and the queen. Servants of the continuation of Thésée and Hippolyte.
Summary of workTwo Couples in love stiff ones, an argument between the king and the queen of the fairies, a potion which is interfered and a troop of actors amateurs who prepare a part for the marriage of a prince, all will intersect in this strange forest, a little magic, the one night time of summer bewitching which resembles a dream.
Scene 1 (with the palate of Thésée, day)
Thésée, duke of Athens enters accompanied by its been engaged, Hippolyta, queen of Amazones, which it must marry in four days. It expresses the eagerness which it feels with the idea of this marriage and encourages its intendant of the festivals, Philostrate, “to involve with the rejoicings Athenian youth”.
While Philostrate leaves, enterenter Egée, its Hermia daughter and her two sighing Lysandre and Démétrius. Egée explains to the duke whom his daughter refuses to marry Démétrius that it however chose for her. Indeed, she likes Lysandre which, as recalled by this last with Thésée “as well was born as, and as well divided to him; love is larger than it his; fortune is under all the reports/ratios as beautiful, if not more beautiful, as that of Démétrius; and, which is above all these vanities, beautiful Hermia is liked”. Egée requires of the duke whom the old privilege of Athens is applied if it persists in refusing Démétrius for husband: “It is, or to undergo death, or to abjure for always the company of the men”. Thésée tries to persuade Hermia by explaining to him why “terrestrial happiness is with the pink which is distilled, and not with that which, fading on its virgin spine, grows, lives and dies in a recluse bliss”. Hermia, impassioned, counterpart which she prefers “to grow, live and die, rather than to grant virginal favors to this lord whose yoke feels reluctant”. Thésée leaves him four more days, until its marriage, to reflect. Démétrius tries to convince Hermia to follow the injunctions of his/her father while taking advantage of his “obvious right”. Mocker, Lysandre answers him admirably: “You have the love of his father, Démétrius. Marry it, and leave me the love of Hermia”. Then he explains to the sovereign that Démétrius courted, successfully, another woman, Héléna. Thésée hardly pays attention and recalls to it to Hermia, before leaving with Hippolyta, Egée and Démétrius, which it must “conform whims to the will of father: if not, the law of Athens, that can by no means soften, condemns to dead or a vow of celibacy”.
Remained only with its amante, Lysandre explains to him why “the true love forever followed an easy course”. It exposes the various obstacles inherent in the love: the difference in age, row. Hermia is each time horrified. By this dialog Shakespeare criticizes with a skilful irony the arranged marriages. The lovers conclude that they must support the pangs of the destiny, fault of being able to escape from it. Lysandre then proposes to flee in his/her aunt, far from Athens, where they will be able to marry. He asks Hermia to join it “in wood, with one mile of the city, where met once with Héléna, to celebrate the first dawn of May”.
Héléna enters and learns to the spectators that Démétrius melted under the charms of Hermia. She asks him how she was caught there. Hermia answers him: “More I hate it, more it continues to me” is the opposite attitude of Héléna: “More I like it, more it hates me” there (one recognizes the diagram of escape of the tragedies). Hermia seeks to reassure Héléna, Lysandre and it reveals their nearest escape to him. Héléna will not have then to fear the shade of Hermia any more.
Hermia then Lysandre leave, letting Héléna despair on stupidity of the love. “The love does not see with the eyes, but with imagination the love in its imagination does not have the taste of the judgment. And it is said that the love is a child because it is so often misled in his choice. As the small mischievous ones which while laughing misses with their word, the Amour child perjury in all places. ”. She recalls that before meeting Hermia, Démétrius was very enthusiast of her. She thus decides to reveal the escape of the lovers to him in order to obtain a little gratitude, well expensive paid. This last action illustrates well the madness of the love, and the acts which it can push us to make.
Scene 2 (the graver of Lecoin)In this scene six craftsmen of Athens with an aim are brought together of assembling a play for the marriage of their duke. The nonsense of the distribution of the roles and the discussions which are followed from there to know if the ladies of the court will not be frightened underlines the incompetence of these poor actors. Bottom, Tisserand, is distinguished from the others because he thinks of being able to play all the parts, better than whoever. The men, once the distribution ridge, give each other appointment the following day evening in wood to repeat.
Scene 1 (a clearing of a wood close to Athens, the night)Puck, a “spirit malicious and rascal whom one names Robin Bonenfant” meets a fairy which teaches him that the queen of the Titania fairies, who must preserve Nature, will not be long in arriving. The imp explains that the king of the Obéron fairies will give in the same place a festival. However the two sovereigns are annoyed because Obéron is jealous of a young page which the queen raises with love, whereas the king would like that it becomes one of his knights (one can wonder whether Shakespeare makes an allusion to the inceste here).
The king and the queen then return each one on a side of the clearing with their processions. The two sovereigns dispute, jealous, in connection with the old conquests of the other. Thus Titania reproaches Obéron for being in Athens because Hippolyte, “mistress out of boots, loves warlike, must be married in Thésée”. Furious Obéron points out to its lady which it “knows love for Thésée”. It cannot thus reproach him for attending the weddings of its old amante. Titania then makes a tirade on the catastrophic effect of their quarrels on Nature. It reproaches him for preventing it from exerting its role of protective Nature: “Because of our discords, we do not see the seasons changing the frightened world cannot any more recognize them with their products. Those which generate these evils they are our debates and our dissensions: we are the authors and the origin”. Obéron proposes as solution that it gives him the child so that they can be reconciled. Titania explains the importance which it attaches to the child: “His/her mother was a adoratrice of my kind and she died of this child; and I raise this child for the love of it; and, for the love of it, I do not want to separate from him”. She proposes to him however to attend the festivities with her but he refuses if it does not give him the child. Furious, Titania leaves with its continuation.
Obéron decides “to punish it for this insult”. With this intention, it sends Puck to seek a " thought of amour" , flower which accepted a Cupid's dart. “Its juice, wide on deadened eyelids, can return a person, woman or man, in love insane with the first alive creature which appears to him”. It projects to pour some on the eyes of Titania so that once in love it delivers the page to him.
At this time Démétrius and Héléna enter. Obéron, invisible, follows all the conversation. Démétrius, furious of the escape of Lyssandre and Hermia, pushes back Héléna violently, not ceasing repeating to him that he does not like it and that he will never like it. The rétorque latter him that the more it pushes back it, the more it clings. It then tries to frighten him: they are alone in a deserted wood, and, insane in love, would make very it to like it. It could thus misuse its capacity and steal its virtue to him. But it does not take the remark with the serious one, and follows it when it leaves, while saying to him: “I want to follow and make a sky of my hell to you while dying with the hand which I like so much”.
Obéron which very heard is outraged by the attitude of Démétrius. Also when Puck returns with the juice of the flower, it orders to him to seek “a charming lady of Athens is in love with a scornful young person” on the eyes of which it must pour some drops of juice. He explains to him why he will recognize “the man with his Athenian costume” and that he must return before the day. During this time, Obéron “will dye” the eyes of his wife.
Scene 2 (another part of wood)The fairies sing a song to deaden their queen. Once made, Obéron slips and humidifies the eyelids of Titania of magic juice. It arises.
Lysandre and Hermia enter then, exténués. Lysandre enjoint Hermia to lie down on the grass. The latter understanding that it intends to sleep close to her fears for her honor. She does not leave embobiner by her fine wordss and convinces it to fall asleep a little further.
The two lovers fall asleep when Puck arrives. When he sees them, he thinks of having found the two Athenians required. He then spreads the philter of love on the eyes of Lyssandre then runs away himself to find Obéron.
Démétrius and Héléna arrive, always quarreling. Démétrius gives up Héléna, which then sees deadened Lyssandre. It awakes when she approaches, and then fall immediately insane in love with her: “It is not Hermia, but Héléna which I like now. Who wouldn't exchange a crow for a dove? ” Héléna thinks that Lysandre is played of it and him reproaches its lack of courtesy: “Oh! How one woman, pushed back by a man, is still insulted by another! ” It leaves furious and wounded. Lysandre before following it is addressed to Hermia by these words: “Hermia, you, and can you sleep there never not approach Lysandre! you, my indigestion, you, my heresy, would be hedge of all, and especially of me”.
At this time Hermia awakes. She dreamed “that a snake devoured the heart and that had sat, smiling to cruel torment”. This dream summarizes the situation well: Lysandre gave up it with sorrows of a nonreciprocal love from now on. Realizing that it is not any more at its sides, it leaves to its research.
Scene 1The six accomplices are able to repeat. Bottom first of all points out to his/her comrades that the suicide of Pyrame on scene could shock the ladies. He proposes whereas a “prolog affects to say that do not want to make of evil with swords and that Pyrame is not killed very out of good”. Lecoin proposes to write this prolog in worms of six “syllables”. Several comparable errors of language appear in this scene such as “bringing, God is to us in assistance! ” in the place of amen or “it comes to disfigure or represent the character of the moonlight”. Shakespeare underlines through these errors the lack of culture of the characters, and thus the nonsense of their part, their future representation. While they decide in the manner of playing the lion, the moonlight and the wall, Puck arrives, attracted by all the noise. The repetition begins grotesquely. Puck follows Bottom when this one goes in the " coulisses" (a thicket of hawthorns) and the affuble of a head of ass. His/her comrades flee by seeing it returning metamorphosed and are made take in hunting by Puck. Bottom thinking that they want to frighten it puts to sing to show that it did not fall into the trap. Then wake up Titania which sees Bottom. The queen falls under the charm and declares her flame with Bottom, which hardly believes in it. She calls her fairies and orders to them to take along Bottom at her.
Scene 2 (the clearing)Puck submits his report/ratio with Obéron. He teaches him the metamorphosis which he subjected to Bottom. “It is at this time there, the chance wanted it, that Titania awoke and was amourachée at once of an ass”. He also teaches him that he poured juice on the eyes of an Athenian deadened close to beautiful Athenian.
At this time Démétrius and Hermia enter. Hermia shows it to have benefitted from the sleep of Lysandre to kill it: “If you killed Lysandre in his sleep, you are already in blood until ankle, complete of you to plunge there and also kill to me”. It cannot believe that Lysandre gave up it in wood: “Would it have been concealed thus in Hermia deadened? ” However Démétrius continues to deny the murder: “I am not soiled blood of Lysandre, and he did not die, that I know”. Hermia anxious, and exceeded by the court which Démétrius makes him goes from there. Démétrius prefers to let it calm itself and falls asleep.
Obéron then reproaches Puck its error: “You put liquor of love on the sight of a faithful lover. He must inevitably result from your mistake the mislaying of a faithful heart, and not the conversion of perfidious”. He then sends it to seek Héléna while pours the philter of love to him on the eyes of Démétrius. Puck, with regard to its error, concluded: “Thus the destiny orders it; for a man who keeps his faith, of the million must weaken, breaking oaths on oaths”.
Puck precedes Héléna, continued by Lysandre, and is delighted with the idea to see the two men disputing the same woman. Héléna always thinks that Lysandre makes fun of it and reproaches it bitterly to him. The protests of Lysandre awake Démétrius then which fall under the charm from Héléna. The latter imagines that the two men leagued against it: “Rival both to like Hermia, you are rival also to make fun you of Héléna”. Arrive then Hermia, guided by the voice of Lysandre. It reproaches him for having left it whereas it was deadened. “Which love could press Lysandre to leave my side? ” she asks him struck when he answers him that “the love pressed to leave”. Héléna thinks then “it is of this plot. they acted in concert, all three, to arrange with my costs this comedy”. Hermia understands nothing there, more especially as she is shown to have encouraged her two former lovers to scoff Héléna. The two men want to come to the hands then Hermia desperate clings to Lysandre which pushes back it and insults it. It turns then to Héléna and shows it to have stolen the heart of his/her lover, certainly while putting forward its big size: “Summers you thus assembled so high in its regard, because I am so small and so dwarf? ” She wants then to be avenged and fight with Héléna which, frightened, request of the assistance to the Sirs. They continue their oral tournament, while preventing Hermia from making evil with Héléna, and decide to come to the fists, out of the clearing. Héléna also flees followed closely by Hermia.
King Obéron remained only with Puck reproaches him his mistake. The imp defends himself by explaining that it moistened the eyes of an Athenian well, in accordance with the orders of his Master. The king the enjoint then to prevent the men from fighting, to make them run everywhere in the forest until exhausted they fall asleep. It will have to then pour the antidote on the eyes of Lysandre. During this time Obéron will seek the young page which it wishes so much, then it will deliver its queen of the evil spell. They must hasten because the day will not be long in rising, but they are spirits of the night.
Puck imitates the voice of Démétrius and guide thus Lysandre towards the bad direction. Exhausted and furibond this last falls asleep. Puck employs the same stratagem with Démétrius which also falls asleep in the same clearing as Lysandre. Héléna arrives thereafter, and falls asleep too. Hermia is the last to be fallen asleep. The four friends all are thus deadened in the same place, without the knowledge. Puck then pours the antidote on the eyes of Lysandre and runs to join its Master because the day starts to be born.
Scene 1 (the clearing)Bottom, Titania and its continuation arrive. Bottom, always so coarse, is cherished by the queen and her fairies. He falls asleep in the arms of his mistress.
Obéron which observes the scene delights: it finally succeeded in recovering the child. “Now that to the child, will put a term at the odious error of its eyes”. It orders in Puck to raise the enchantment of Bottom so that it goes back to Athens the next morning “remembering the accidents of this night only like the tribulations of a bad dream”. Obéron awakes then his wife, after him to have applied the antidote and asks him “to call music; and that it strikes of a lethargy major than an ordinary sleep the directions five mortals”. It enjoint then to press itself because the day rises: “Let us go, my queen, in a serious silence, run after the shade of the night”.
Thésée and Hippolyte, followed by Egée and their continuation, arrive conversing on the hunting to which they will assist. They then see the four deadened young people and awake them with the sound of the horn. The king accommodates them by these words: “Hello, my friends. The St. Valentine's day passed. Do the birds of these wood start to couple themselves only today? ” The lovers then try to explain their presence in these wood. Lysandre explains the reason for which Hermia and it are there: “our project was to leave Athens not to be more under the blow of the Athenian law”. Then Démétrius explains its presence and that of Héléna: “by fury I followed them there, beautiful Héléna following me by love”. He explains then his new feelings: “my love for Hermia melted like snow. the single object, the single joy of my eyes, it is Héléna. Now I wish it, I like it, I aspire to it, and I will be faithful forever for him”. The king is charmed of this inversion of situation. Considering the morning advanced already well, it decides to go directly to Athens to celebrate not only its marriage, but also that of the four young lovers. The latter are confused a little. They still think of dreaming, and do not yet completely realize of the situation.
Bottom awakes when everyone left. It is astonished by the dream that it made, and said, very ironically: “The man who will undertake to explain this dream is only one ass… ”. He decides to make some make a ballade which he will be able to sing with his own way. Bottom delivers again to us a reflection absurdity with regard to this ballade: “perhaps even, to give him more grace, I will sing it after death”
Scene 2 (in Athens, at Lecoin)The apprentices actors impatientent themselves: Bottom did not reappear whereas Thésée and “two or three couples of lords and ladies, married in addition” have just left the temple. But fortunately Bottom arrives. Its matter is incoherent: “I have wonders to tell you; but do not ask me what it is. I will say all exactly to you that arrived. Not a traitor word”. It enjoint the troop to be prepared, because the duke finished dining.
Scene 1 (with the palate)Hippolyte and Thésée comment on the account of the lovers. Thésée thinks that “the insane one, in love one and the poet are done everything of imagination”, the lovers thus had to imagine their history. The latter arrive and take seat. Philostrate brings then the program of the entertainments suggested to the duke. The duke decides to see the “short one and tiresome history of the Pyrame young person and sound amante Thisbé; very tragic joke” which he comments on as follows: “joke and tragedy! Tiresome and short! As which would say hot ice, the strangest snow. How to find the agreement of this dissension? ” Philostrate explains to him why it is described in these terms “because in all the part it does not have there a word a right nor able actor”. The duke decides to see it nevertheless because " it is the intention which compte" : “the assignment and simplicity dumb women are those which, with less words, speak more in my heart”.
The prolog, Lecoin, arrive. Its matter is confused: “its speech was like a muddled chain: nothing missed there, but all was in disorder”. Moreover, Lecoin, while wanting to introduce the characters, summarizes all the part. The wall is played by Groin which explains its role, and especially its disguise (lime, rubble and hardcore). The remarks of the spectators are also absurd (and thus comic) that dires of the actors. Thus Thésée declares: “can one wish that bearded lime speaks better than that? ” and Démétrius retorts that “it is the most spiritual partition which I have hearing to discourse”. All along the representation the actors stop, and answer, with the remarks of the spectators. Thus when Pyrame curses the wall which prevents it from joining its amante Thisbé, the duke declares that it expects that the wall curses it in return. The actor stops and then explains to him well nicely that it is not the wall which will answer but Thisbé. The arrival of the lion and the moon causes a discussion without tail nor head. First of all in connection with the kindness of the lion then in connection with the costume of the moon: guests considering that the man, his faggot and his dog should have been in the lantern since this one represents the moon and that all this is on the moon! Thisbé enters in scene, makes a comic fault in its text: “here fall it from the old Simpleton” (in the place of Ninus) then flees, frightened by the howling of the lion. The three counterparts which follow show well the comic character of the part:
- Démétrius: “Howled Well, lion! ”
- Thésée: “Run Well, Thisbé! ”
- Hippolyte: “Well him, the Moon… Really, the moon shone of fort good grace. ”
- Thésée: “Run Well, Thisbé! ”
- Démétrius: “I see the death, but I do not see the die. In any case, it is have, because it is all alone; ”
- Lyssandre: “Then, it is have with center; because it bored it. ”
- Thésée: “A surgeon who would cure it would not make any have projecting. ”
- Lyssandre: “Then, it is have with center; because it bored it. ”
Enter Puck, then the king and the queen of the fairies. They start to sing and dance:
- “That each fairy wanders in the palate of Thésée.
- And will bless we it,
- And the family generated there
- Will be always happy.
- From now on these three couples
- will like always accurately; : Fairies, spread
- everywhere the crowned dew of the fields;
- And bless each room,
- By filling this palate of the softest peace. ”
- And will bless we it,
To finish, Puck is addressed to the spectators (with us!) in these words: “Shades which we are, if we displeased, appear you only that you made only one bad nap”.
- the theater in the theater, Put in abyme: setting in scene of Pyrame and Thisbé, monolog of end of Puck
- the opposition enters the night, spaces phantasms, and the day, spaces reality
- the parental conflict and the conflict with the company
- 1692 : the opera Baroque The Fairy Queen of Henry Purcell
- 1827: the incidental music for '' the one night Dream of summer '' of Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy whose wedding March is often used at the time of the celebrations of marriages.
- 1903: the one night Dream of summer a comedy musciale with the New Amsterdam Theater
- 1960: the opera the one night Dream of summer of Benjamin Britten
- 1984: the Play the Repetition in the forest of Laurent Meda
- 1986: the Play the Park of Botho Strauss
- 1990: the episode has Midsummer Night' S Dream of the series of Cartoon Sandman by Neil Gaiman & Charles Vess.
- 1909 : French silent film with the English clown Footit
- 1935: the one night Dream of summer - realization of max Reinhardt and William Dieterle according to the setting in scene of max Reinhardt, with James Cagney ( Bottom ), Mickey Rooney ( Puck ), Olivia de Havilland ( Hermia ), Dick Powell ( Lysandre )
- 1959: the one night Dream of summer ( SEN noci svatojánské ), a Czech feature-length film of animation (with puppets) realized by Jiří Trnka
- 1969: the one night Dream of summer realized by Jean-Christophe Averty, with Claude Jade, Christine Delaroche, Jean-Claude Drouot, Christiane Minazzoli, Michel Ruhl, Dominique Seriana
- 1996: noble realization of Adrian, according to the setting in scene of the Royal Shakespeare Company.
- 1999: the one night Dream of summer , realization of Michael Hoffman, with Kevin Kline ( Bottom ), Michelle Pfeiffer ( Titania ), Sophie Marceau ( Hippolyta ), Calista Flockhart ( Helena ). Adaptation whose action is put in perspective in Toscane at the end of the 19th century.
- 2005: the one night Dream of summer , telefilm of ED Fraiman
Some historical settings in scene
- January 1st 1604: first representation of the part at the court.
- 1755 : Under the title Fairies by David Garrick (adaptation also including extracts of the Storm and songs on poems of John Dryden)
- 1840: first setting in scene since creation restoring the integrity of the original text of Shakespeare (Covent Garden)
- 1905: put in scene of max Reinhardt (it will make of them many versions until 1939)
|Random links:||Ciconiiformes | The Last of the six | 1657 in France | Killorglin | Louis Armand Delom d' Arce|