The World Health Organization
See also: WHO (homonymy), Who
The the World Health Organization ( WHO ), or World Health Organization (WHO) is the specialized institution of UNO for the Santé. It depends directly on the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.
According to its constitution, WHO aims to bring all the people of the world at possible level of Santé the highest, the health being defined in this same document like a “state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not consisting only of one absence of disease or infirmity”.
HistoryFounded the April 7th 1948, WHO finds its origins in the wars of the end of the XIXe century (américano-Mexican Guerre, Crimean War).
After the First World War, the Spanish Influenza of 1918 - 1919, which made in six months more than twenty million deaths, pushed the Société of the Nations (SDN) to create the committee of hygiene of the SDN, which is the embryo of WHO.
Because of the sudden death of its managing director, Lee Jong-wook, on May 22nd, 2006, the interim of the direction is ensured by Anders Nordström, to the election of its successor, Dr. Margaret Chan, on November 8th, 2006.
CompositionWHO is articulated in two series of structures:
The seat in GenevaWHO is directed by 193 Member States, gathered at the world Parliament of health. This assembly, made up of deputy representing the Member States, has as principal functions to approve the budget programs WHO for the following biennium and to rule on the great political orientations of the Organization. This assembly votes in the majority of two thirds of the international conventions on health. The payments are voted by the world Parliament of health in the majority simple and they will come into effect for all the Member States except if those refuse or issue reserves within the times prescribed for the notification.
The Executive council is the body charged to manage WHO. Its 34 members are elected intuitu personae for three years by the Parliament and the Council meets at least 2 times per annum. Its principal functions are to apply the decisions and the directives of the world Parliament of health and to indicate orientations to him.
The Secretariat is directed by the managing director, named by the Member States for one five years period, on a proposal from the Executive council. The personnel of the Secretariat of WHO is composed health professionals, other specialists or experts and of an administrative staff working with the Seat with Geneva, in the six regional offices and the countries.
In 2005, the total of its manpower were: 3996 agents of which: 1549 administrators. Its biennial Budget in 2004-2005 was of: 2824111000 US dollars.
Regional officesThe purpose of they are to take account of the medical problems specific to certain areas of the world.
- New Delhi (Southeast Asia)
- Cairo (the Eastern Mediterranean), the Regional office was transferred in 2000 from Alexandria to Cairo in Egypt
- Manila (Peaceful Westerner)
- Washington (Americas - Pan-American Organization from Health (OPS)
- Brazzaville (Africa)
- Copenhagen (Europe)
Action of WHOHere great spheres of activity of WHO, with some examples:
- Harmonization, coding : classification of all the Disease S.
- medical Measurements : to take measures to stop a medical epidemic and measurements in the event of international voyages (like the Vaccine ation).
- Assistance in the LDCS (the least advanced Countries) : vaccination against large the infectious illness, provisioning of Drinking water, waste disposal, maternal protection and eradication of certain diseases.
- Research :
- the international Center of research on cancer (CIRC) with Lyon in France, as well as a program launched in 1987 against the AIDS equipped with a clean budget of 120 million dollars of the United States|date= September 22nd, 2007
- the Center for the development of health (WKC) with Kobe with the Japan which was established in 1995
CriticismsThe doctor Michel Fernex (former doctor of WHO) denounces the agreement between WHO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), come into effect the May 28th 1959 by resolution WHA12.40. This agreement, according to him, minimizes the risks of the Radioactivité for the public health. For the Catastrophe of Tchernobyl, WHO advances the figure of 56 dead, whereas other evaluations, of which that of the Ukrainian government, go from: 50000 with: 150000 dead. In particular, the acts of the conference of 1995 in Geneva and the report of the conference of Kiev 2001 on the medical consequences of the catastrophe of Tchernobyl were not published, which is completely unusual. Dr. Hiroshi Nakajima, managing director of the WHO of 1988 to 1998, in particular declared on television Swiss that these documents had been censured because of the agreement with the IAEA.
Several demonstrations took place in front of the head office of WHO to require the revision of the agreement with the IAEA. Since April 26th, 2007, a permanent presence at unlimited duration in front of the buildings of WHO in Geneva started.
The journalist Vittorio Messori showed the ideological WHO of radicalism and political straightness. According to him, WHO makes the active promotion of the Avortement, the antenatal selection and acts as block against the efforts of the Christian Church.
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