The State of the Vatican City is an independent State located at Rome in Italy;
C' is a recognized State but non-member of UNO.
Il account 921 inhabitants (2005) on a surface of 0,44 km ², which makes Città del Vaticano the smallest State in the world.
It was created the February 11th 1929 like support of the the Holy See (together of the institutions of the Roman Catholic church), under the terms of the Accords of Lateran signed by the the Holy See represented by the cardinal Gasparri and the Italy, represented by Mussolini.
The Common language is the Italian and not the Latin , language of the Roman Catholic church. However, Latin is the legal language of the Vatican: the text of reference of the official publications is in general written in Latin, then translated in various other languages. French is the language of diplomacy: the Vatican is made record like French-speaking State attached to the international agencies.
La official language of the army of the Vatican (the Swiss Guard) is however the German .
See also: History of the State of the Vatican
The Vatican is the remainder of the Papal States. September 20th 1870, after the evacuation of the French troops, Rome is conquered by the Piedmontese troops and is attached to the Kingdom of Italy. The Pope Pie IX refuses to lose his last possession and enters in conflict with the Italian State (" romaine" question;) until the Agreements of Lateran in 1929.
The history of the Vatican is indissociable of that of the Roman Catholic church.
The Pape lays out of the absolute Pouvoir (executive, legislative and legal). The executive power is delegated to a named governor which is also in charge of the diplomatic representation. A commission made up from five to seven cardinals exerts by delegation the legislative power. The institutions of the Vatican are regulated by a constitution, whose first grinding was written by Pie XI at the time of the Accords of Lateran. Currently, the Vatican is governed by the fundamental law of the February 22nd 2001. Its laws are consigned in the Acta Apostolicæ Sedis .
The citizenship vaticane is not the expression of a national membership. It is related to the exercise of functions within the Vatican or the Holy See. Consequently, this citizenship always comes to be added to a nationality of origin. As soon as these functions cease, the citizenship ceases. Thus, a prelate of the Curie taking pastoral functions loses his citizenship. This one is also allotted to the spouse and to the family (ascending, downward and collateral direct) of the civils servant of the Vatican. The boys lose of them the benefit at the 25 years age and the girls, at the time of their marriage.
It is the the Holy See, together institutions of the Roman Catholic church, and not the State of the Vatican City which is the subject of an international representation. It has a head office of State observant non-member with UNO.
The Vatican expressed a desire to join the zone Schengen.
See also: the Holy See
See also: International relations of the Holy See
See also: Geography of the Vatican
Because of its very low surface, the Vatican is the smallest Sovereign state of the world. It is enclosed in walls imposed by article 5 of the agreements of Lateran and includes/understands the Place Saint-Pierre, the Basilique Saint-Pierre, the apostolic Palais, the Musées of the Vatican and the gardens.
The Holy See also has the property of several buildings located out of the City vaticane, among which:
the whole of Lateran: the Midsummer's Day Basilica of Lateran, the palate and its appendices, as well as Scola Santa;
- the Holy-Marie-Major Basilica;
- the Basilica Saint-Paul-out-the-walls and its monastery;
- of the palate sheltering the services of the Roman Curia: palates of Daterie and the Chancellery (seats of the Rote Roman, the Supreme court of the apostolic Signature and the apostolic Pénitencerie), the palate of the Propagation of the faith (seat of the Congregation for the doctrines of the faith), etc;
- the complex of Castel Gandolfo, residence of summer of the pope;
- the station of emission of Radio Vatican located in the suburbs of Rome.
These buildings profit from the privilege of exterritoriality but strictly speaking do not form part of the State of the Vatican City. Lastly, the Holy See also has buildings simply free from expropriation and taxes, like the Gregorian Université.
See also: Economy of the Vatican
In 2002, the consolidated deficit of the Vatican rose to 13,5 million Euro S for 216 million euros of receipts. The expenditure is mainly the wages of the 2 600 employees (including approximately 750 ecclesiastics).
In addition to the tourist incomes, the emission of postal stamps and Currency S sought by the collectors and the sale of publications, the incomes come from movable placements (32 million euros of appreciation in 2002) and real estate (12,9 million euros).
Another considerable financial station is the Denier of Saint-Pierre who bordered the 50 million euros in 2002, even if part of this sum only is assigned to the budget of the Vatican. Its origin goes back to the 8th century, when the Anglo-Saxon started to send an annual contribution to the pope. This use extended then to the other countries of Europe and was recognized officially by the pope Pie IX the August 5th 1871 in the Encyclique Sæpe venerabilis .
See also: Demography of the Vatican
About the totality of the 890 citizens of the Vatican live inside the walls of the city. The citizens of the Vatican are composed mainly of members of the clergy, including the dignitaries, the priests, the nuns, as well as famous the pontifical Swiss Garde, the military force in charge of the protection of the Pape. There is about 3 000 foreign workers, who compose the majority of the labor of the State, but which resides apart from the Vatican.
The official languages of the Vatican City are:
- the German for the Swiss guards;
- the Italian for the State of the Vatican City;
- the Latin for the Roman Catholic church and the the Holy See;
- the French for the Diplomacy of the Holy See.
See also: Culture of the Vatican
As a seat of the Catholicism, the Vatican has a very important cultural influence of course. It has also a clean cultural activity, as for example a radio station which emits in several languages.
The museums of the Vatican have rich person collections of sacred art and layman as well as Etruscan and Egyptian antiquities. They were founded by Clément XIV at the 18th century.
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